Selected Bibliography for Steven Levitt
William B. Ogden Distinguished Service Professor in Economics and the College



Accessing Articles
Published Works | Working Papers

Published Works  

"What Can Be Done to Improve Struggling High Schools?" Julie Berry Cullen, Steven D. Levitt, Erin Robertson and Sally Sadoff; Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2013, 27(2), pp. 133-52.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/jep.27.2.133

"Testing for Racial Differences in the Mental Ability of Young Children." Roland G. Fryer, Jr. and Steven D. Levitt; American Economic Review, 2013, 103(2), pp. 981-1005.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.103.2.981

"Identifying Terrorists Using Banking Data." Steven D. Levitt; B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, 2012, 13(3).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/1935-1682.3282

"Hatred and Profits: Under the Hood of the Ku Klux Klan." Roland G. Fryer, Jr. and Steven D. Levitt; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2012, 127(4), pp. 1883-925.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjs028

"Was There Really a Hawthorne Effect at the Hawthorne Plant? An Analysis of the Original Illumination Experiments." Steven D. Levitt and John A. List; American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2011, 3(1), pp. 224-38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.3.1.224

"Predicting and Preventing Shootings among at-Risk Youth." Dana Chandler, Steven D. Levitt and John A. List; American Economic Review, 2011, 101(3), pp. 288-92.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.101.3.288

"Checkmate: Exploring Backward Induction among Chess Players." Steven D. Levitt, John A. List and Sally E. Sadoff; American Economic Review, 2011, 101(2), pp. 975-90.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.101.2.975

"The Plight of Mixed-Race Adolescents." Roland G. Fryer, Lisa Kahn, Steven D. Levitt and Jörg L. Spenkuch; Review of Economics and Statistics, 2012, 94(3), pp. 621-34.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/REST_a_00252

"Evaluating the Effectiveness of Child Safety Seats and Seat Belts in Protecting Children from Injury." Joseph J. Doyle, Jr. and Steven D. Levitt; Economic Inquiry, 2010, 48(3), pp. 521-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2008.00170.x

"An Empirical Analysis of the Gender Gap in Mathematics." Roland G. Fryer, Jr. and Steven D. Levitt; American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2010, 2(2), pp. 210-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/app.2.2.210

"What Happens in the Field Stays in the Field: Exploring whether Professionals Play Minimax in laboratory Experiments." Steven D. Levitt, John A. List and David H. Reiley; Econometrica, 2010, 78(4), pp. 1413-34.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3982/ECTA7405

"Can Field Experiments Return Agricultural Economics to the Glory Days?" David H. Herberich, Steven D. Levitt and John A. List; American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 2009, 91(5), pp. 1259-65.
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bsh&AN=45270534

"The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Teen Childbearing." John J. Donohue, III, Jeffrey Grogger and Steven D. Levitt; American Law and Economics Review, 2009, 11(1), pp. 24-46.
http://aler.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/11/1/24

Superfreakonomics : Global Cooling, Patriotic Prostitutes, and Why Suicide Bombers Should Buy Life Insurance; Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner; New York: William Morrow, 2009

"Field Experiments in Economics: The Past, the Present, and the Future." Steven D. Levitt and John A. List; European Economic Review, 2009, 53(1), pp. 1-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroecorev.2008.12.001

"Homo Economicus Evolves." Steven D. Levitt and John A. List; Science, 2008, 319(5865), pp. 909-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1153640

"Exploring the Impact of Financial Incentives on Stereotype Threat: Evidence from a Pilot Study." Roland G. Fryer, Steven D. Levitt and John A. List; American Economic Review, 2008, 98(2), pp. 370-75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.98.2.370

"Market Distortions When Agents Are Better Informed: The Value of Information in Real Estate Transactions." Steven D. Levitt and Chad Syverson; Review of Economics and Statistics, 2008, 90(4), pp. 599-611.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/rest.90.4.599

"Antitrust Implications of Outcomes When Home Sellers Use Flat-Fee Real Estate Agents." Steven D. Levitt and Chad Syverson; Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs, 2008, 2008, pp. 47-93.
http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/brookings-wharton_papers_on_urban_affairs/v2008/2008.levitt.html

"What Do Laboratory Experiments Measuring Social Preferences Reveal About the Real World?" Steven D. Levitt and John A. List; Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2007, 21(2), pp. 153.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/jep.21.2.153

"Viewpoint: On the Generalizability of Lab Behaviour to the Field." Steven D. Levitt and John A. List; Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'economique, 2007, 40(2), pp. 347-70.
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.00412.x

"What Does Performance in Graduate School Predict? Graduate Economics Education and Student Outcomes." Susan Athey, Lawrence F. Katz, Alan B. Krueger, Steven Levitt and James Poterba; American Economic Review, 2007, 97(2), pp. 512-18.
http:/dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.97.2.512

"The Effect of School Choice on Participants: Evidence from Randomized Lotteries." Julie Berry Cullen, Brian A. Jacob and Steven D. Levitt; Econometrica, 2006, 74(5), pp. 1191-230.
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-0262.2006.00702.x

"The Black-White Test Score Gap through Third Grade." Roland G. Fryer, Jr. and Steven D. Levitt; American Law and Economics Review., 2006, 8(2), pp. 249-81.
http://aler.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/8/2/249

"White-Collar Crime Writ Small: A Case Study of Bagels, Donuts, and the Honor System." Steven D. Levitt; American Economic Review, 2006, 96(2), pp. 290-94.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/000282806777212161

"Why Good Schools Are Bad for Your Kids..." Etelka Lehoczky and Steven Levitt; Money, 2005, 34(5), pp. 48A-48B.
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&an=16795002

Freakonomics : A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything; Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner; New York: William Morrow, 2005

"Testing Theories of Discrimination: Evidence from Weakest Link*." Steven D Levitt; Journal of Law and Economics, 2004, 47(2), pp. 431.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/425591

"The Causes and Consequences of Distinctively Black Names." Roland G. Fryer, Jr. and Steven D. Levitt; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2004, 119(3), pp. 767-805.
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=bth&an=13928938

"What the Bagel Man Saw." Stephen J. Dubner and Steven D. Levitt, New York Times Magazine, June 6, 2004, 62.

"Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors That Explain the Decline and Six That Do Not." Steven D. Levitt; Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2004, 18(1), pp. 163-90.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/089533004773563485

"Why Are Gambling Markets Organised So Differently from Financial Markets?" Steven D. Levitt; Economic Journal, 2004, 114(495), pp. 223-46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0297.2004.00207.x

"Understanding the Black-White Test Score Gap in the First Two Years of School." Roland G. Fryer, Jr. and Steven D. Levitt; Review of Economics and Statistics, 2004, 86(2), pp. 447-64.
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&an=13029693

"An Empirical Analysis of Imprisoning Drug Offenders." Ilyana Kuziemko and Steven D. Levitt; Journal of Public Economics, 2004, 88(9-10), pp. 2043-66.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0047-2727(03)00020-3

"Further Evidence That Legalized Abortion Lowered Crime: A Reply to Joyce." John J. Donohue, III and Steven D. Levitt; Journal of Human Resources, 2004, 39(1), pp. 29-49.
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&an=12321218

"The Economics of Education." Steven D. Levitt; NBER Reporter, 2003, (Winter).
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&an=12144618

"Rotten Apples: An Investigation of the Prevalence and Predictors of Teacher Cheating." Brian A. Jacob and Steven D. Levitt; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2003, 118(3), pp. 843-77.
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&an=10800345

"Catching Cheating Teachers: The Results of an Unusual Experiment in Implementing Theory." Brian A. Jacob and Steven D. Levitt; Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs, 2003, pp. 185-209.
http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/brookings-wharton_papers_on_urban_affairs/v2003/2003.1jacob02.pdf

"Prison Conditions, Capital Punishment, and Deterrence." Lawrence Katz, Steven D. Levitt and Ellen Shustorovich; American Law and Economics Review, 2003, 5(2), pp. 318-43.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aler/ahg014

"Review of Drug War Heresies by Maccoun and Reuter." Steven D. Levitt; Journal of Economic Literature, 2003, 41(2), pp. 540-44.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/002205103765762752

"An Examination of the Influence of Theory and Individual Theorists on Empirical Research in Microeconomics." Pierre-André Chiappori and Steven D. Levitt; American Economic Review, 2003, 93(2), pp. 151-55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/000282803321946967

"Honoring James Heckman's Contributions to Economics: Identification, Heterogeneity, and Economic Models." Steven D. Levitt; Law and Social Inquiry, 2002, 27( 1), pp. 35.
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=6467107

"Deterrence," Steven D. Levitt, in J. Q. Wilson and J. Petersilia: Crime : Public Policies for Crime Control. Oakland, Calif.: ICS Press, 2002, pp. x, 705 p.

"Testing the Economic Model of Crime: The National Hockey League's Two Referee Experiment." Steven D. Levitt; Contributions to Economic Analysis and Policy, 2002, 1(1).
http://www.bepress.com/bejeap/contributions/vol1/iss1/art2

"Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effects of Police on Crime: Reply." Steven D. Levitt; American Economic Review, 2002, 92(4), pp. 1244-50.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28200209%2992%3A4%3C1244%3AUECIPH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E

"Winning Isn't Everything: Corruption in Sumo Wrestling." Mark Duggan and Steven D. Levitt; American Economic Review, 2002, 92(5), pp. 1594-605.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28200212%2992%3A5%3C1594%3AWIECIS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-A

"Testing Mixed-Strategy Equilibria When Players Are Heterogeneous: The Case of Penalty Kicks in Soccer." Pierre-André Chiappori, Steven D. Levitt and T. Groseclose; American Economic Review, 2002, 92(4), pp. 1138-51.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28200209%2992%3A4%3C1138%3ATMEWPA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5

"Alternative Strategies for Identifying the Link between Unemployment and Crime." Steven D. Levitt; Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 2001, 17( 4), pp. 377.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1012541821386

"Growing up in the Projects: The Economic Lives of a Cohort of Men Who Came of Age in Chicago Public Housing." Steven D. Levitt and Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh; American Economic Review, 2001, 91(2), pp. 79-84.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28200105%2991%3A2%3C79%3AGUITPT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L

"The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime." John J. Donohue, III and Steven D. Levitt; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2001, 116(2), pp. 379-420.
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&an=4438427

"The Impact of Race on Policing and Arrests." John J. Donohue, III and Steven D. Levitt; Journal of Law and Economics, 2001, 44(2), pp. 367-94.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/322810

"Sample Selection in the Estimation of Air Bag and Seat Belt Effectiveness." Steven D. Levitt and Jack Porter; Review of Economics and Statistics, 2001, 83(4), pp. 603-15.
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&an=5523376

"How Dangerous Are Drinking Drivers?" Steven D. Levitt and Jack Porter; Journal of Political Economy, 2001, 109(6), pp. 1198-237.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-3808%28200112%29109%3A6%3C1198%3AHDADD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-I

"The Determinants of Juvenile Crime," Steven D. Levitt and Lance Lochner, in J. Gruber: Risky Behavior among Youths: An Economic Analysis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2001, pp. 327-73

""Are We a Family or a Business?" History and Disjuncture in the Urban American Street Gang." Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh and Steven D. Levitt; Theory and Society, 2000, 29( 4), pp. 427.
http://www.metapress.com/link.asp?id=p21223734272628g

"An Economic Analysis of a Drug-Selling Gang's Finances." Steven D. Levitt and Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2000, 115(3), pp. 755-89.
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&an=3474881

"The Limited Role of Changing Age Structure in Explaining Aggregate Crime Rates." Steven D. Levitt; Criminology, 1999, 37(3), pp. 581.
http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/crim37&id=597&collection=journals

"Congressional Distributive Politics and State Economic Performance." Steven D. Levitt and James M. Poterba; Public Choice, 1999, 99(1-2), pp. 185-216.
http://www.metapress.com/link.asp?id=j365643822980g33

"Crime, Urban Flight, and the Consequences for Cities." Julie Berry Cullen and Steven D. Levitt; Review of Economics and Statistics, 1999, 81(2), pp. 159-69.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0034-6535%28199905%2981%3A2%3C159%3ACUFATC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-4

"The Changing Relationship between Income and Crime Victimization." Steven D. Levitt; Federal Reserve Bank of New York Economic Policy Review, 1999, 5(3), pp. 87-98.
http://www.ny.frb.org/research/epr/99v05n3/9909levi.pdf

"Comparing Interest Group Scores across Time and Chambers: Adjusted Ada Scores for the U S Congress." Tim Groseclose, Steven D. Levitt and James M. Snyder, Jr.; American Political Science Review, 1999, 93(1), pp. 33-50.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0554%28199903%2993%3A1%3C33%3ACIGSAT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-F

"Using Sentence Enhancements to Distinguish between Deterrence and Incapacitation." Daniel Kessler and Steven D. Levitt; Journal of Law and Economics, 1999, 42(1), pp. 343-63.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2186%28199904%2942%3A1%3C343%3AUSETDB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L

"The Economics of Crime and the Criminal Justice System." Steven D. Levitt; NBER Reporter, 1998, (Fall).
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&an=1343647

"The Hazards of Moral Hazard: Comment on Goff, Shughart, and Tollison." Steven D. Levitt; Economic Inquiry, 1998, 36(4), pp. 685-87.
http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=35463490&sid=2&Fmt=4&clientId=13392&RQT=309&VName=PQD

"Are Pacs Trying to Influence Politicians or Voters?" Steven D. Levitt; Economics and Politics, 1998, 10(1), pp. 19-35.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-0343.00036

"Why Do Increased Arrest Rates Appear to Reduce Crime: Deterrence, Incapacitation, or Measurement Error?" Steven D. Levitt; Economic Inquiry, 1998, 36(3), pp. 353-72.
http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=32231332&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=13392&RQT=309&VName=PQD

"The Relationship between Crime Reporting and Police: Implications for the Use of Uniform Crime Reports." Steven D. Levitt; Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 1998, 14(1), pp. 61-81.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023096425367

"Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack." Ian Ayres and Steven D. Levitt; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1998, 113(1), pp. 43-77.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0033-5533%28199802%29113%3A1%3C43%3AMPEFUV%3E2.0.CO%3B2-B

"Guns, Violence, and the Efficiency of Illegal Markets." John J. Donohue, III and Steven D. Levitt; American Economic Review, 1998, 88(2), pp. 463-67.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28199805%2988%3A2%3C463%3AGVATEO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P

"Juvenile Crime and Punishment." Steven D. Levitt; Journal of Political Economy, 1998, 106(6), pp. 1156-85.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-3808%28199812%29106%3A6%3C1156%3AJCAP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-G

"A Skeptical but Sympathetic Appraisal of the Prospects for Nurturant Crime-Control Policies." Steven D. Levitt; Politics & the Life Sciences, 1997, 16( 1), pp. 34.

"Incentive Compatibility Constraints as an Explanation for the Use of Prison Sentences Instead of Fines." Steven D. Levitt; International Review of Law and Economics, 1997, 17(2), pp. 179-92.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8188(97)00002-1

"Decomposing the Sources of Incumbency Advantage in the U. S. House." Steven D. Levitt and Catherine D. Wolfram; Legislative Studies Quarterly, 1997, 22(1), pp. 45-60.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0362-9805%28199702%2922%3A1%3C45%3ADTSOIA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2

"The Impact of Federal Spending on House Election Outcomes." Steven D. Levitt and James M. Snyder, Jr.; Journal of Political Economy, 1997, 105(1), pp. 30-53.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-3808%28199702%29105%3A1%3C30%3ATIOFSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-G

"Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effect of Police on Crime." Steven D. Levitt; American Economic Review, 1997, 87(3), pp. 270-90.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28199706%2987%3A3%3C270%3AUECIPH%3E2.0.CO%3B2-V

"Is No News Bad News? Information Transmission and the Role of "Early Warning" in the Principal-Agent Model." Steven D. Levitt and Christopher M. Snyder; The Rand Journal of Economics, 1997, 28(4), pp. 641-61.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0741-6261%28199724%2928%3A4%3C641%3AINNBNI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-3

"The Effect of Prison Population Size on Crime Rates: Evidence from Prison Overcrowding Litigation." Steven D. Levitt; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1996, 111(2), pp. 319-51.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0033-5533%28199605%29111%3A2%3C319%3ATEOPPS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6

"How Do Senators Vote? Disentangling the Role of Voter Preferences, Party Affiliation, and Senator Ideology." Steven D. Levitt; American Economic Review, 1996, 86(3), pp. 425-41.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8282%28199606%2986%3A3%3C425%3AHDSVDT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-H

"Political Parties and the Distribution of Federal Outlays." Steven D. Levitt and James M. Snyder, Jr.; American Journal of Political Science, 1995, 39(4), pp. 958-80.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0092-5853%28199511%2939%3A4%3C958%3APPATDO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P

"Congressional Campaign Finance Reform." Steven D. Levitt; Journal of Economic Perspectives, 1995, 9( 1), pp. 183.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0895-3309%28199524%299%3A1%3C183%3APWCCFR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2

"Policy Watch: Congressional Campaign Finance Reform." Steven D. Levitt; Journal of Economic Perspectives, 1995, 9(1), pp. 183-93.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0895-3309%28199524%299%3A1%3C183%3APWCCFR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2

"Optimal Incentive Schemes When Only the Agents' "Best" Output Matters to the Principal." Steven D. Levitt; The RAND Journal of Economics, 1995, 26(4), pp. 744-60.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0741-6261%28199524%2926%3A4%3C744%3AOISWOT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P

"Congressional Distributive Politics and State Economic Performance." James M. Poterba and Steven D. Levitt; NBER Reporter, 1994, (Spring), pp. 57.
http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&an=9501263050

Four Essays in Positive Political Economy; Steven David Levitt; Ph.D Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1994.
http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/11964

"An Empirical Test of Competing Explanations for the Midterm Gap in the U S House." Steven D. Levitt; Economics and Politics, 1994, 6(1), pp. 25-37.

"Using Repeat Challengers to Estimate the Effect of Campaign Spending on Election Outcomes in the U.S. House." Steven D. Levitt; Journal of Political Economy, 1994, 102(4), pp. 777-98.
http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-3808%28199408%29102%3A4%3C777%3AURCTET%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C

Working Papers  

Enhancing the Efficacy of Teacher Incentives through Loss Aversion: A Field Experiment; Roland G. Fryer, Jr., Steven D. Levitt, John List and Sally Sadoff; NBER Working Paper Series No. 18237; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2012.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w18237

The Behavioralist Goes to School: Leveraging Behavioral Economics to Improve Educational Performance; Steven D. Levitt, John A. List, Susanne Neckermann and Sally Sadoff; NBER Working Paper Series No. 18165; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2012.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w18165

The Role of Skill Versus Luck in Poker: Evidence from the World Series of Poker; Steven D. Levitt and Thomas J. Miles; NBER Working Paper Series No. 17023; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2011.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w17023

Checkmate: Exploring Backward Induction among Chess Players; Steven D. Levitt, John A. List and Sally E. Sadoff; NBER Working Paper Series No. 15610; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w15610

What Happens in the Field Stays in the Field: Exploring Whether Professionals Play Minimax in Laboratory Experiments; Steven D. Levitt, John A. List and David H. Reiley, Jr.; NBER Working Paper Series No.15609; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w15609

Professionals Do Not Play Minimax: Evidence from Major League Baseball and the National Football League; Kenneth Kovash and Steven D. Levitt; NBER Working Paper Series No. 15347; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w15347

An Empirical Analysis of the Gender Gap in Mathematics; Roland G. Fryer, Jr. and Steven D. Levitt; NBER Working Paper Series No. 15430; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w15430

Was There Really a Hawthorne Effect at the Hawthorne Plant? An Analysis of the Original Illumination Experiments; Steven D. Levitt and John A. List; NBER Working Paper Series No. 15016; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w15016

Hatred and Profits: Getting under the Hood of the Ku Klux Klan; Roland G. Fryer, Jr. and Steven D. Levitt; NBER Working Paper Series no. 13417; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2007.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w13417

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Child Safety Seats and Seat Belts in Protecting Children from Injury; Steven D. Levitt and Joseph J. Doyle; NBER working paper series ; no. w12519; Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w12519

An Economist Sells Bagels: A Case Study in Profit Maximization; Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series ; no. w12152; Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w12152

Testing for Racial Differences in the Mental Ability of Young Children; Roland G. Fryer and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series ; no. w12066; Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w12066

Measurement Error, Legalized Abortion, and the Decline in Crime
A Response to Foote and Goetz (2005)
; John J. Donohue and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series ; no. w11987; Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w11987

Evidence That Seat Belts Are as Effective as Child Safety Seats in Preventing Death for Children Aged Two and Up Steven D. Levitt; NBER Working Papers Series no. 11591; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/W11591

Measuring the Impact of Crack Cocaine; Roland G. Fryer, Paul S. Heaton, Steven D. Levitt and Kevin M. Murphy; NBER Working Papers Series no. 11318; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/W11318

The Black-White Test Score Gap through Third Grade; Roland G. Fryer and Steven D. Levitt; NBER Working Paper Series No. 11049; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/W11049

Market Distortions When Agents Are Better Informed: The Value of Information in Real Estate Transactions; Steven D. Levitt and Chad Syverson; NBER Working Paper Series No. 11053; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/W11053

Further Evidence That Legalized Abortion Lowered Crime a Reply to Joyce; John J. Donohue and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series no. 9532.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/w9532

The Effect of School Choice on Student Outcomes Evidence from Randomized Lotteries; Julie Berry Cullen, Brian Aaron Jacob and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series ;; no. 10113; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/w10113

The Causes and Consequences of Distinctively Black Names; Roland G. Fryer and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series no. 9938.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W9938

Testing Theories of Discrimination : Evidence from Weakest Link; Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series no. 9449.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2003.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W9449

Understanding the Black-White Test Score Gap in the First Two Years of School; Roland G. Fryer and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series ;; no. 8975; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w8975

How do Markets Function? An Empirical Analysis of Gambling on the National Football League; Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series ;; no. 9422; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002.
http://nber.org/papers/w9422

Catching Cheating Teachers the Results of an Unusual Experiment in Implementing Theory; Brian Aaron Jacob and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series ;; no. 9414; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/w9414

Rotten Apples an Investigation of the Prevalence and Predictors of Teacher Cheating; Brian Aaron Jacob and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series ;; no. 9413; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/w9413

An Empirical Analysis of Imprisoning Drug Offenders; Ilyana Kuziemko and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series ;; no. 8489; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2001.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W8489

The Impact of School Choice on Student Outcomes : An Analysis of the Chicago Public Schools; Julie Berry Cullen, Brian Aaron Jacob and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series no. 7888.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W7888

The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime; John J. Donohue and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series ;; no. 8004; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W8004

Winning Isn't Everything : Corruption in Sumo Wrestling; Mark G. Duggan and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series no. 7798.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W7798

Sample Selection in the Estimation of Air Bags and Seat Belt Effectiveness; Steven D. Levitt and Jack Ray Porter; NBER working paper series no. 7210.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1999.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/w7210

Estimating the Effect of Alcohol on Driver Risk Using Only Fatal Accident Statistics; Steven D. Levitt and Jack Ray Porter; NBER working paper series no. 6944.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1999.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w6944

An Economic Analysis of a Drug-Selling Gang's Finances; Steven D. Levitt and Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh; NBER working paper series no. 6592.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1998.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w6592

The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime; John J. Donohue and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series no. 6784.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1998.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w6784

Using Sentence Enhancements to Distinguish between Deterrence and Incapacitation; Daniel P. Kessler and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series no. 6484.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1998.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w6484

Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution : An Empirical Analysis of Lojack; Ian Ayres and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series no. 5928.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1997.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/5928

Juvenile Crime and Punishment; Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series no. 6191.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1997.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w6191

Crime, Urban Flight, and the Consequences for Cities; Julie Berry Cullen and Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series no. 5737.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1996.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W5737

The Impact of Federal Spending on House Election Outcomes; Steven D. Levitt and James M. Snyder; NBER working paper series no. 5002.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1995.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W5002

Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effect of Police on Crime; Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series no. 4991.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1995.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W4991

Why do Increased Arrest Rates Appear to Reduce Crime : Deterrence, Incapacitation, or Measurement Error?; Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series no. 5268.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1995.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W5268

The Effect of Prison Population Size on Crime Rates : Evidence from Prison Overcrowding Litigation; Steven D. Levitt; NBER working paper series no. 5119.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1995.
http://www.nber.org/papers/W5119

Congressional Distributive Politics and State Economic Performance; Steven D. Levitt and James M. Poterba; NBER working paper series no. 4721.; Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1994.
http://papers.nber.org/papers/4721

Accessing Linked Articles  

Links to articles are, in most cases, to University of Chicago subscription databases. University of Chicago users who are off-campus will need to use IT Services ProxyIt bookmarklet to authenticate themselves as authorized users. Vistors to our site may be able to get access through a local library; contact your local library for assistance.