80,000 cataloging records for cartographic materials
Map Collection staff added a record to WorldCat (OCLC) on August 23 that turned out to be the University of Chicago's 80,000th WorldCat record for cartographic materials. No other university library has its holding symbol on more cartographic-materials records (although the Library of Congress has its on more than 300,000 records). Of the 80,000 records, more than 70,000 are for the sheet maps; the rest are for atlases. Perhaps a third are original records; the rest come from other libraries. The 80,000th record--OCLC 856655692--is a description of a reprint of a Soviet-era map of P'ot'i, Georgia.
Approximately 90% of the Map Collection's sheet-map holdings are now cataloged.
--CW, August 2013
Map indexes online
More than half the maps in most big university map libraries are individual sheets in topographic map sets. Cataloging records for these sets are notoriously unhelpful, because they contain no information about holdings. Most map libraries keep track of their holdings with paper graphical indexes. These indexes have traditionally been kept with the sets and have been accessible only to those able to visit.
Following the lead of several other libraries, the University of Chicago Map Collection began putting some of its indexes to sets of "topos" online in the spring of 2013. An example can be found by clicking here. Each rectangle on these maps corresponds to one sheet. The red triangles show sheets actually held. The online indexes are accessible through the cataloging records for the sets. We have also created a Web page that provides access to some of the available index maps.
--CW, July 2013
Captured Japanese maps processed
As a result of World War II, the American Army found itself in possession of hundreds of thousands of maps that had been prepared by German and Japanese military mapping services. These maps--along with maps compiled by the Army Map Service itself--were distributed to American (and some foreign) university libraries in the years after 1945. The maps from the Army Map Service and the German maps ended up forming a substantial part of the collections at many university map libraries, including that at the University of Chicago.
The German maps--often a little more polished than the maps from which they were derived--have been a particularly valuable resource for scholars ever since. They provide extraordinarily detailed coverge of much of Europe and the Middle East. It goes without saying that use of these maps does not imply endorsement of the actions of the government that compiled them.
The Japanese maps, never as numerous and not as widely distributed, have not proved as important, in part because they are much more difficult to deal with. They are in Japanese, so using them presents language problems. Many lack coordinates, so even identifying the areas being mapped can be challenge, a fact complicated by name changes in some countries. Also, the Japanese military agencies that produced the maps obviously did not have libraries in mind, and often gave what appear to be series of maps inconsistent names. Furthermore, the maps are of varying quality. Some are superb; others contain large white areas, implying that the maps' compilers had insufficient information to make a polished map.
The University of Chicago Library apparently ranked high in the distribution lists for these maps and gradually added the majority of them to the Collection over the years. The maps of Chinese cities have proved particularly important to scholars. Most have a note saying that they are based on Chinese maps, but the Chinese originals are hard to come by. The maps preserve the original Chinese characters (occasionally supplemented with katakana pronunciations) and present an invaluable record of Chinese urbanism during the years when it was beginning to be affected by the modern world. Additional Japanese maps added to the Collection in earlier years include sets of topographic maps of Taiwan, Manchuria, the Russian Far East, and many Pacific islands.
Several thousand of the more difficult-to-deal-with Japanese maps had--rather embarrassingly--never been fully processed as of 2011. They had sat in boxes in the Map Collection for 60 years.
Thanks almost entirely to the hard work of student assistant Naoko Takeuchi, the Map Collection has undertaken the task of processing these remaining sheets and adding them to the Collection. Among the materials that have turned up is a nearly complete set of 1:50,000 maps of Korea in the 1920s and the 1930s. Maps of much Eastern China at 1:50,000 or 1:100,000 in the same period have also been added. There are also dozens of 1:10,000 maps of Korean cities, a scattering of material from Southeast Asia, and a very large number of detailed maps of Japan itself. We have been fortunate in having access to online indexes prepared by the University of California at Berkeley and the National Diet Library, but--partly because we seem to have numerous sheets not held anywhere else--we have ended up preparing many of the indexes for topographic map sets ourselves using ArcGIS. As these maps have been officially added to the Collection, cataloging records for them (all with kanji) have been added to the Library's online catalog. Locally prepared indexes for topographic map sets are in some (but not all) cases accessible through the cataloging records or in an index of indexes.
The goal is to finish processing all these maps by the end of winter quarter 2014.
--CW, June 2013, updated December 2013
Nokia Solutions and Networks (the former Nokia-Siemens Networks) of Arlington Heights, Illinois, has donated an extraordinary collection of more than 30,000 sheet maps to the University of Chicago Library.
The maps are mostly topographic maps. They show buildings and settlements, infrastructure, vegetation, hydrography, relief, and, in some cases, land use. Scales range from 1:5,000 to 1:500,000. The maps date from the 1950s to the 1990s.
Many of the maps are from countries where topographic mapping is normally very difficult to acquire. The collection includes, for example, local 1:25,000 maps of most of South Korea, northern Algeria, and Java; local 1:50,000 maps of much or all of Jordan, Egypt, Pakistan, and the United Arab Emirates; Soviet 1:50,000 maps of all or part of Poland, Greece, Turkey, Georgia, Uzbekistan, and Belarus; and Soviet 1:100,000 maps of all or part of Libya and northern India. It would be essentially impossible to recreate this collection by purchases.
The maps were originally used mostly to site cellphone towers. They were collected by Motorola before its acquisition by Nokia-Siemens Networks. According to Malcolm Matthews of Nokia Solutions and Networks, the company began to use satellite imagery and GIS in the late 1990s rather than sheet maps. A decision was made in 2012 to offer the maps to local research libraries.
The collection is being shared with Northwestern University. Northwestern has taken most of the maps of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, and the University of Chicago Map Collection has taken most of the maps of North Africa and the Middle East, Europe, the former Soviet states, and South, Southeast, and East Asia.
With this donation, the University of Chicago Library Map Collection's holdings of sheet maps have reached 470,000. The Map Collection had been adding approximately 3,000 sheets per year over the last decade, so taking on more than 27,000 sheets at one time has presented a substantial challenge. A major shift to accommodate the new maps was necessary. Its chief component was the compression of U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps to create space in the Eastern Hemisphere cases. More than 300,000 maps were moved last winter to prepare for the Nokia acquisition.
Processing the maps has also been a major task. As of October 2013, all of the maps have been fully cataloged and indexed. In some cases the indexes appear online and are accessible from the cataloging records.
The maps have already found several users, among them an undergraduate writing a thesis on Amman, an archaeologist with a particular interest in the Dodecanese Islands, and a faculty member researching Burmese transportation.
--CW, April 2013, updated July and October 2013