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University of Chicago Library

Guide to the Hart, Schaffner and Marx Labor Agreement Records 1919-1920

© 2006 University of Chicago Library

Descriptive Summary

Title:

Hart, Schaffner and Marx Labor Agreement. Records

Dates:

1919-1920

Size:

3 linear feet (3 boxes)

Repository:

Special Collections Research Center
University of Chicago Library
1100 East 57th Street
Chicago, Illinois 60637 U.S.A.

Abstract:

The Hart, Schaffner and Marx Labor Agreement grew out of the unsuccessful nineteen-week strike of workers in the Chicago men’s clothing industry in 1910. It was initially signed by representatives of the workers and Hart, Schaffner and Marx and represented a compromise between the United Garment Worker’s (UGW) demand for a closed shop and management desire for an open one. The Records contain correspondence, grievance cases, and trade rulings.

Information on Use

Access

The collection is open for research.

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Citation

When quoting material from this collection, the preferred citation is: Hart, Schaffner and Marx Labor Agreement. Records, [Box #, Folder #], Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library

Historical Note

The Hart, Schaffner and Marx Labor Agreement grew out of the unsuccessful nineteen-week strike of workers in the Chicago men's clothing industry in 1910. It was initially signed by representatives of the workers and Hart, Schaffner and Marx, largely at the instance of Joseph Schaffner, and represented a compromise between the United Garment Worker's (UGW) demand for a closed shop and management desire for an open one. Under the agreement of March 13, 1911, an arbitration board was set up for the settlement of shop grievances. It was composed of Clarence Darrow for the workpeople and Carl Meyer for the company. Inasmuch as Dean Wigmore of Northwestern Law School, whom they chose as impartial chairman, was unable to serve, the two functioned alone. Early in 1912, a trade board, with joint representation, was set up as a court of first resort when shop chairmen (UGW agents) and foremen were unable to settle disputes on the floor. James Mullenbach was impartial chairman of this body from its inception until 1935. At the same time, John E. Williams became impartial chairman of the arbitration board, holding the position until 1919, when he was succeeded by James H. Tufts. In 1914, a supplementary agreement established a "preferential shop," based on the system obtaining in the New York market, and giving the UGW preference in hiring. At the same time, the Arbitration Board was given power under an "emergency clause" to adjust wages.

In the following year, 1915, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (ACW) began to organize the Chicago market, unsuccessfully striking all the men's clothing firms other than Hart, Schaffner and Marx. Nevertheless, the ACW was able, in the next year, to supplant the UGW as shop representatives at Hart, Schaffner and Marx, and, between 1916 and 1919, signed agreements similar to the Hart, Schaffner and Marx Agreement with the manufacturers of the New York, Boston, Baltimore and Rochester markets. In the latter year, the Hart, Schaffner and Marx Agreement, which had been renegotiated every two years, became operative for the entire Chicago men's clothing market.

The functions of the Arbitration Board also increased during this period. On December 13, 1919, Tufts exercised the emergency clause powers by ruling an upward adjustment of wages, on the unprecedented grounds that the condition of the industry indicated it; on August 17, 1920, he ruled against an advance, on the same grounds. He also appointed, in December, 1919, commissions for the respective branches of the trade, and, on their reports in March, 1920, the Arbitration Board made rulings on job classification, work rules, employment rights and wage rates. Tufts continued as impartial chairman of the Arbitration Board from January 1919, until September 1920, when his place was taken by Harry A. Millis, who had been chairman of the Trade Board from 1919 to 1920. After 1922, the emergency clause, empowering the Arbitration Board to set wages, was dropped. In 1923, direct negotiation between the ACW and the Chicago Industrial Federation of Clothing Manufacturers became the means of establishing wages and working conditions. After 1925, the Arbitration Board ceased to have a permanent chairman, and, with very few cases appealed to it from the Trade Board, ceased to meet with any regularity. The Trade Board, although it continued, came to deal with only such few cases as could not be settled by summary negotiation by shop chairmen and foremen or deputies and labor managers. By 1942, the arbitration board had fallen into general disuse throughout the men's clothing industry, and the trade board was used only seldom, the Boston and Chicago markets having ceased to have any permanent chairmen. At present (1960), grievances are settled by direct negotiation between shop chairmen and foremen, or by deputies and labor managers on appeal. Trade matters are settled by bi-lateral negotiation at periodic intervals, with industry-wide bargaining taking the place of market agreements, except on purely local questions.

James H. Tufts (1862-1942) is better known as a teacher and writer than as a labor arbitrator. He was educated at Amherst (A.B., 1884; A.M., 1890) and Freiburg (Ph.D., 1892), and taught mathematics at Amherst (1885-87), and philosophy at the University of Michigan (1889-91) and the University of Chicago (1892-1930). At the latter institution, he also served in various administrative capacities, culminating in the vice-presidency (1924-26) and acting presidency (1925). On his retirement, in 1930, he lectured in philosophy at the University of California at Los Angeles (1930-33). He is equally well-known for his eight books, including Ethics (1908, 1932), written with John Dewey, as well as his editorship of The School Review.

Scope Note

The Hart, Schaffner and Marx Labor Agreement Records contain correspondence, grievance cases, and trade rulings.

Related Resources

The following related resources are located in the Department of Special Collections:

http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/e/spcl/select.html

Subject Headings

INVENTORY

Box 1   Folder 1

Biographical material on James H. Tufts

View digitized documents.

Box 1   Folder 2

Correspondence, Tufts with Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, (ACW) Chicago local

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Box 1   Folder 3

Correspondence, Tufts with ACW, national headquarters

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Box 1   Folder 4

Correspondence, Tufts with Hart, Schaffner and Marx (Earl Dean Howard) on other than specific cases, inquiries and rulings

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Box 1   Folder 5

Correspondence, Tufts with clothing manufacturers and manufacturers’ representatives other than Hart, Schaffner and Marx

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Box 1   Folder 6

Correspondence, Tufts with Trade Board and Arbitration Board members (Chicago Market)

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Box 1   Folder 7

Correspondence, Tufts with labor mediators and arbitrators of other markets

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Box 1   Folder 8

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Trade Board cases, 1919

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Box 1   Folder 9

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Trade Board cases, January, 1920

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Box 1   Folder 10

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Trade Board cases, February-May, 1920

View digitized documents, part 1.

View digitized documents, part 2.

Box 1   Folder 11

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Trade Board cases, June-August, 1920

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Box 1   Folder 12

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Trade Board cases, undated

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Box 1   Folder 13

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board cases, January-June, 1919

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Box 1   Folder 14

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board cases, July-December, 1919

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Box 1   Folder 15

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board cases, January-April, 1920

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Box 1   Folder 16

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board cases, May-September, 1920

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Box 1   Folder 17

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board cases, no date

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Box 1   Folder 18

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board trade rulings: employment (correspondence and reports)

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Box 1   Folder 19

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board trade rulings: employment (board rulings)

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Box 1   Folder 20

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board trade rulings: wage rates (correspondence and reports)

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Box 1   Folder 21

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board trade rulings: wage rates (board rulings)

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Box 2   Folder 1

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board trade rulings, work rules and standards (correspondence and reports)

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Box 2   Folder 2

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board trade rulings, work rules and standards (board rulings)

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Box 2   Folder 3

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board trade rulings, status of contractors (correspondence, reports and board rulings)

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Box 2   Folder 4

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board trade rulings, stoppages (correspondence and reports)

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Box 2   Folder 5

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board notes of Tufts on proceedings before the Board (undated)

View digitized documents, part 1.

View digitized documents, part 2.

View digitized documents, part 3.

Box 2   Folder 6

Chicago Market Labor Adjustment Machinery, Arbitration Board notes, memoranda and reports on trade and general business conditions assembled by Tufts as a basis for trade rulings

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Box 2   Folder 7

Men’s Clothing Markets Other Than Chicago Labor Adjustment Machinery, New York Market, Arbitration Board cases, February-August, 1919

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View digitized documents, part 2.

Box 2   Folder 8

Men’s Clothing Markets Other Than Chicago Labor Adjustment Machinery, New York Market, Arbitration Board cases, September, 1919-October, 1919

View digitized documents, part 1.

View digitized documents, part 2.

View digitized documents, part 3.

Box 2   Folder 9

Men’s Clothing Markets Other Than Chicago Labor Adjustment Machinery, New York Market, Arbitration Board cases, November-December, 1919

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View digitized documents, part 2.

Box 2   Folder 10

Men’s Clothing Markets Other Than Chicago Labor Adjustment Machinery, New York Market, Arbitration Board cases, January-July, 1920

View digitized documents, part 1.

View digitized documents, part 2.

Box 2   Folder 11

Men’s Clothing Markets Other Than Chicago Labor Adjustment Machinery, Rochester Market, Rochester Clothing Industry Labor Adjustment Board cases, September, 1919-February, 1920

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View digitized documents, part 2.

Box 2   Folder 12

Men’s Clothing Markets Other Than Chicago Labor Adjustment Machinery, Rochester Market, Rochester Clothing Industry Labor Adjustment Board cases, March-April, 1920

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View digitized documents, part 2.

Box 2   Folder 13

Men’s Clothing Markets Other Than Chicago Labor Adjustment Machinery, Rochester Market, Rochester Clothing Industry Labor Adjustment Board cases, May-July, 1920

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View digitized documents, part 2.

Box 2   Folder 14

Men’s Clothing Markets Other Than Chicago Labor Adjustment Machinery, miscellaneous boards (A-Z) and unknown, 1919-20

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Box 2   Folder 15

Miscellaneous documents relating to labor relations in the men’s clothing industry, manufacturers’ policy statements

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Box 2   Folder 16

Miscellaneous documents relating to labor relations in the men’s clothing industry, union policy statements

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Box 2   Folder 17

Miscellaneous documents relating to labor relations in the men’s clothing industry, Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, Local 61 (Chicago), correspondence with members

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Box 2   Folder 18

Miscellaneous documents relating to labor relations in the men’s clothing industry, Impartial Chairmen, Men’s and Boys’ Clothing Industry, minutes of the meeting of March 20, 1920, Pennsylvania Hotel, New York

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Box 2   Folder 19

Miscellaneous documents relating to labor relations in the men’s clothing industry, labor agreements (Agreement between the Mid-Western Tailoring Company, Chicago, Illinois, and the United Garment Workers of America, March 23, 1912; Hart, Schaffner and Marx Labor Agreements, January 14, 1914; Agreement Providing for Adjustment of Wages, Chicago, Illinois, July 9, 1919, Board of Arbitration Interpretation of Dispute Points of the Hart, Schaffner and Marx Agreement, September 20, 1919.

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Box 2   Folder 20

Miscellaneous documents relating to labor relations in the men’s clothing industry, newspaper clippings; Industrial Information Service, May 27, 1920; June 24, 1920.

View digitized documents, part 1.

View digitized documents, part 2.

Box 3

"Comparative Statement of Hours and Earnings of the Same Employees in the Month of August for the Years - 1919 - 1918 - 1917 - 1916 - 1915," undated

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