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University of Chicago Library

Guide to the Heinrich Klüver Papers 1912-1978

© 2010 University of Chicago Library

Descriptive Summary

Title:

Klüver, Heinrich. Papers

Dates:

1912-1978

Size:

7 linear feet (14 boxes)

Repository:

Special Collections Research Center
University of Chicago Library
1100 East 57th Street
Chicago, Illinois 60637 U.S.A.

Abstract:

Heinrich Kluver (1897-1979), neuro-psychologist. The Papers contain certificates, bibliographies, diaries, autograph books, day books, diplomas, correspondence, original manuscripts, articles and reprints, and photographs of Heinrich Klüver and his second wife Harriet Schwenk.

Information on Use

Access

The collection is open to research.

Citation

When quoting material from this collection, the preferred citation is: Klüver, Heinrich. Papers, [Box #, Folder #], Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library

Biographical Note

Heinrich Klüver was born May 25, 1897 in Holstein, Germany. After serving in the Germany army during World War I, between 1920 and 1923 he studied at both the University of Hamburg and the University of Berlin. In 1923 he came to the United States to attend Stanford University where he is credited with having introduced German Gestalt psychology to North America. He obtained his Ph.D. in physiological psychology from Stanford the following year. In 1927 he married Cessa Feyerabend and settled in the United States permanently, becoming a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1934.

Klüver’s first teaching position was as instructor in psychology at the University of Minnesota (1924-1926). There he met and became a close friend and research associate of renowned neuropsychologist Karl Spencer Lashley. After working at Columbia University as a fellow of the Social Science Research Council (1926-1928), Klüver accompanied Lashley in a transition to Chicago. First as a research psychologist for the Behavior Research Fund (1928-1933), and then as a member of the Sprague Memorial Institute at the University of Chicago in 1933. In 1936 he became associate professor of psychology at the University of Chicago and was promoted to full professor of experimental psychology in 1938. When Klüver retired from teaching in 1963, he held the title of Sewell Avery distinguished professor of biological psychology. As professor emeritus he continued to pursue laboratory research on the University of Chicago campus until a year before his death on February 8, 1979.

Klüver is widely regarded as a key contributor to the discovery of the physiological foundations of animal and human behavior. Largely as a result of Klüver’s experimental work with laboratory monkeys, not only the scientific community, but common knowledge recognizes the role of brain physiology and neurochemistry in both the production of normal behavior and the treatment of abnormal behavior. Klüver began his groundbreaking research by studying the effects of the psychotropic drug mescaline (also known as peyote) on monkeys and upon himself as well. He hoped to be able to determine precisely what portions of the brain the drug effects and why it produces particular hallucinatory perceptions. He theorized that there are pre-linguistic sense-specific levels and physiological loci within the nervous system that enable subjects to perceive the distinct properties of stimulus objects. He noticed that when he gave mescaline to monkeys they exhibited unusually frequent mouth manipulation. Klüver’s efforts to learn which part of the brain was responding to the drug by producing this behavior lead to the surgical removal of the temporal lobes of the brain. This procedure produced a further regular constellation of characteristics and behaviors: 1) docility 2) inability to recognize stimuli by sight 3) intensified orality 4) over-reaction and repeated reaction to visual stimuli 5) changes in eating habits 6) and increased sexual activity of all kinds.

In addition to his work on neurophysiology and behavior, Klüver was a pioneer in the use of monkeys in social scientific research. His long-term handling of monkeys as experimental subjects gained him a reputation as an expert on monkey care and behavior. He studied and published on the subject of the monkey life cycle, demonstrating that monkeys suffer from many of the same diseases afflicting humans, including diabetes, endometriosis, and various types of cancers. In the field of laboratory technology, he and his colleague Elizabeth Barrera developed the Klüver-Barrera stain, which renders neurons, glia, and myelin sheaths observable together at the same time.

Klüver was a member of innumerable professional and honorary societies such as the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Physiological Society, the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, and the Society of Biological Psychiatry. He enjoyed immense respect, not only among social and behavioral scientists, but also among medical and biological scientists, as demonstrated by his receipt of several honorary medical degrees.

Scope Note

The Heinrich Klüver Papers consist of 7 linear feet of material that includes certificates, bibliographies, diaries, autograph books, day books, diplomas, correspondence, original manuscripts, articles and reprints, and photographs of Heinrich Klüver and his second wife Harriet Schwenk. Heinrich Klüver was a neuro psychologist who pioneered the use of monkeys in social scientific research. He is widely regarded as a key contributor to the discovery of the physiological foundations of animal and human behavior. In her early career, Harriet Schwenk, had been an assistant to Dr. Walter A. Maier and on the editorial staff of the Lutheran Witness. She later became the executive secretary in the Biology Department at MIT and the Neuro Sciences Research Program.

The papers are divided into two series: I. Heinrich Klüver and II. Harriet Schwenk. Each series has been further subdivided into subseries that include Personal, Correspondence, Writings (of Heinrich and Harriet), and Photographs. The papers include very little to document his contributions to the study of animal and human behavior. The exceptions are located in Subseries 3 and Subseries 4. Subseries 3 contains writings by Klüver and Subseries 4 contains several scrapbooks that show photographs of Klüver with cages of monkeys.

Related Resources

The following related resources are located in the Department of Special Collections:

http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/e/spcl/select.html

Subject Headings

INVENTORY

Series I: Heinrich Klüver

Series I, Heinrich Klüver, has been divided into four subseries: (1) Personal, (2) Correspondence, (3) Writings by Heinrich Klüver and Others, and (4) Photographs. Subseries 1 includes certificates, curriculum vitae, bibliographies, lectures, diaries and daybooks, and diplomas. Subseries 2, contains correspondence covering the period 1907 to 1978. The correspondence has been arranged chronologically. Subseries 3, contains original manuscripts, articles, and reprints by Heinrich Klüver as well as manuscripts by other scholars and scientists. This subseries also contains a thirty-eight page photostat of Klüver genealogy. This document is written German. The final subseries contains photographs that relate to Heinrich Klüver and his family; however most of the images are unidentified. Four photograph albums are also included in this subseries. They contain some images of Klüver working with monkeys. Additional photographs can be found in Series II, Harriet Schwenk Klüver.

Subseries 1: Personal

Box 1   Folder 1

Bibliographies, curriculum vitae, lectures,

1924 - 1975

Box 1   Folder 2

Confirmation certificate, Marriage certificates, 1927, fellowship announcement,

1912 - 1929

Box 1   Folder 3

University course work documentation, Diploma, Leland Stanford Junior University, Ph.D. 1925, membership certificates,

1927 - 1974

Box 1   Folder 4

Window Notice, World War I

Box 1   Folder 5

Diary,

1971

Box 1   Folder 6

Aufsätze, Essays,

March 25, 1897 (3 notebooks)

Box 1   Folder 7

Daybooks, 1915,

1921

Box 1   Folder 8

Daybooks, Iron Cross Ribbon, World War I

Box 1   Folder 9

Guest Book,

1936 - 1941

Box 1   Folder 10

German currency,

1914-1920

Box 2   Folder 1

Obituaries, Stephan Polyak, 1955; Max Rinkel, 1966

Box 2   Folder 2

Plaque, “Marquis Biographical Library Society Member: 1970”

Subseries 2: Correspondence

Box 2   Folder 3

Correspondence,

1907

Box 2   Folder 4

Correspondence,

1908

Box 2   Folder 5

Correspondence,

1909

Box 2   Folder 6

Correspondence,

1910

Box 2   Folder 7

Correspondence,

1917

Box 2   Folder 8

Correspondence,

1920

Box 2   Folder 9

Correspondence,

1921

Box 2   Folder 10

Correspondence,

1922

Box 2   Folder 11

Correspondence,

1923

Box 2   Folder 12

Correspondence,

1924

Box 2   Folder 13

Correspondence,

1925

Box 2   Folder 14-15

Correspondence,

1926

Box 2   Folder 16

Correspondence,

1927

Box 2   Folder 17

Correspondence,

1934

Box 2   Folder 18

Correspondence,

1935

Box 2   Folder 19

Correspondence,

1952

Box 2   Folder 20

Correspondence,

1957

Box 2   Folder 21

Correspondence,

1958

Box 2   Folder 22

Correspondence,

1961

Box 2   Folder 23

Correspondence,

1963

Box 2   Folder 24

Correspondence,

1964

Box 2   Folder 25

Correspondence,

1965-1966

Box 2   Folder 26

Correspondence,

1966

Box 2   Folder 27

Correspondence,

1967

Box 2   Folder 28

Correspondence,

1968

Box 2   Folder 29

Correspondence,

1969

Box 2   Folder 30

Correspondence,

1970

Box 2   Folder 31

Correspondence,

1971

Box 2   Folder 32

Correspondence,

1972

Box 3   Folder 1

Correspondence,

1973

Box 3   Folder 2

Correspondence,

1974

Box 3   Folder 3

Correspondence,

1975

Box 3   Folder 4

Correspondence,

1976

Box 3   Folder 5

Correspondence,

1977

Box 3   Folder 6

Correspondence,

1978

Box 3   Folder 7-8

Correspondence,

undated

Subseries 3: Writings by Heinrich Klüver and Others

Box 3   Folder 9

Reprints,

1924 - 1949

Box 3   Folder 10

Reprints,

1950 - 1959

Box 3   Folder 11

Reprints,

1962 - 1972

Box 4   Folder 1

Collected papers,

1924 - 1928 (bound)

Box 4   Folder 2

Collected papers,

1928 - 1932 (bound)

Box 4   Folder 3

Collected papers,

1933 (bound)

Box 5   Folder 1

Collected papers,

1933 - 1944

Box 5   Folder 2

Collected papers,

1945 - 1962

Box 5   Folder 3

"Implement-Using Behavior in a Cebus Monkey, "

1937

Box 5   Folder 4

Clüverii Chronica (bound)

Box 6   Folder 1

Clüverii Chronica

Box 6   Folder 2

Miscellaneous manuscripts by others,

1925 - 1932, 1969

Box 6   Folder 3

Family History of Lorentz Siderich Kluwer, photostat, (German) (rolled),

undated

Box 6   Folder 4

Certificate and photograph, American Neurological Association, (rolled),

1940

Subseries 4: Photographs

Box 7   Folder 1

Photographs, Heinrich Klüver

Box 7   Folder 2

Photographs, unidentified

Box 7   Folder 3

Photo album

Box 7   Folder 4

Photo album

Box 7   Folder 5

Photo album

Box 7   Folder 6

Photo album

Series II: Harriet Schwenk

Harriet Schwenk was born in 1906 in St. Louis, Missouri. She received her degree from Washington University in 1928 and taught in the St. Louis school system for fifteen years. She was a member of Tanea, a women's honorary literary society, and Kappa Delta Pi, an honorary education organization. Harriet served as assistant to Dr. Walter A. Maier during his service to The Lutheran Hour and as head of the Department of Old Testament at Concordia Seminary. She also served for seven years on the editorial staff of the Lutheran Witness. In 1958, Harriet Schwenk moved to Boston, Massachusetts, to take a position as executive secretary to Dr. Frank Schmitt who was the head of the Biology Department at M.I.T. She later became the chairman's assistant at the formation of the Neuro Sciences Research Program. While she was at NSRP she met and later married Dr. Heinrich Klüver, a neuro psychologist from the University of Chicago. She died on February 5, 1988 in Lake Forest, Illinois Series II contains personal papers, correspondence, scrapbooks, articles and photographs that relate to Harriet Schwenk; second wife of Heinrich Klüver. This series has been divided into four subseries: (1) Personal, (2) Correspondence, (3) Writings by Harriet Schwenk and Others, and (4) Photographs.

Subseries 1: Personal

Box 8   Folder 1

Social Security Card and shorthand notes

Box 8   Folder 2

Address book

Box 8   Folder 3

Address book

Box 8   Folder 4

Scrapbook of recorded births and deaths

Box 8   Folder 5

Certificates, Washington University and recognition from MIT, June,

1971

Box 8   Folder 6

Frank Louis Soldan High School Yearbook, St. Louis, Mo.,

January 1924

Box 8   Folder 7

Frank Louis Soldan High School Yearbook, St. Louis, Mo., June,

1924

Box 8   Folder 8

Autograph book signed by high school classmates with assorted photographs throughout book,

1924

Box 9   Folder 1

Diary,

1923-1924

Box 9   Folder 2

Autograph book, Cote Brilliante School, Myra Schwenk (w/ assorted pictures,

1914

Box 9   Folder 3

Autograph book, Soldan High School, Myra Schwenk (w/ assorted pictures,

1918

Subseries 2: Correspondence

Box 9   Folder 4

Correspondence,

1924

Box 9   Folder 5

Correspondence,

1927

Box 9   Folder 6

Correspondence,

1930

Box 9   Folder 7

Correspondence,

1931

Box 9   Folder 8

Correspondence,

1932

Box 9   Folder 9

Correspondence,

1933

Box 9   Folder 10

Correspondence,

1936

Box 9   Folder 11

Correspondence,

1939

Box 9   Folder 12

Correspondence,

1940

Box 9   Folder 13

Correspondence,

1941

Box 9   Folder 14

Correspondence,

1944

Box 9   Folder 15

Correspondence,

1947

Box 10   Folder 1

Correspondence,

1950

Box 10   Folder 2

Correspondence,

1951

Box 10   Folder 3

Correspondence,

1952

Box 10   Folder 4

Correspondence,

1953

Box 10   Folder 5

Correspondence,

1954

Box 10   Folder 6

Correspondence,

1955

Box 10   Folder 7

Correspondence,

1956

Box 10   Folder 8

Correspondence,

1957

Box 10   Folder 9

Correspondence,

1958

Box 10   Folder 10-11

Correspondence,

1959

Box 10   Folder 12

Correspondence,

1960

Box 10   Folder 13

Correspondence,

1961

Box 10   Folder 14

Correspondence,

1963

Box 10   Folder 15

Correspondence,

1964

Box 10   Folder 16

Correspondence,

1969

Box 10   Folder 17

Correspondence,

1970

Box 10   Folder 18

Correspondence,

1971

Box 10   Folder 19

Correspondence,

1972

Box 10   Folder 20

Correspondence,

1973

Box 10   Folder 21

Correspondence,

1974

Box 10   Folder 22

Correspondence,

1976

Box 10   Folder 23

Correspondence,

1977-1978

Box 10   Folder 24

Correspondence,

undated

Subseries 3: Writings by Harriet Schwenk and Others

Box 11   Folder 1

"Jubilate...Walter A. Maier Served the Lord with Gladness, "

undated

Box 11   Folder 2

"Dr. Walter A. Maier's Undeviating Stand Against Atheistic Communism, " Manuscript fragment,

undated

Box 11   Folder 3

"Dr. Walter A. Maier's Undeviating Stand Against Atheistic Communism, " Concordia Historical Institute Quarterly,

July 1950 and October 1950

Box 11   Folder 4

"Jorge Luis Borges,

November 16, 1967," lecture (w/ shorthand notes)

Box 11   Folder 5

"Report and Recommendation on Religious Broadcasting in Germany", Walter E. Maier,

1947

Box 11   Folder 6

A Restudy of Woman's Place in Building the Kingdom, " Russell C. Prohl,

1954

Box 11   Folder 7

Lutheran Witness, 1952; Lutherland Bulletin,

1934

Box 11   Folder 8

Newspaper clippings

Subseries 4: Photographs

Box 11   Folder 9

Harriet Schwenk

Box 11   Folder 10

Pencil drawing of Harriet Schwenk (?) by Marguerite Schultz

Box 11   Folder 11-12

Family

Box 12   Folder 2

Trip to Florence, Italy

Box 12   Folder 3

Relating to Walter A. Maier

Box 12   Folder 4-6

Assorted MIT and Neurosciences Research Program

Box 12   Folder 7-9

Professor Sezer's 50th birthday

Box 13   Folder 1

Relating to Martha E. Brown and Mill Neck Medal

Box 13   Folder 2

Photograph album, unidentified

Box 13   Folder 3

Photographs, unidentified

Box 13   Folder 4

Slides, trips to Spain and Portugal, 1967, 1971,

1972 and 1975

Box 13   Folder 5

Negatives, unidentified

Box 14   Folder 1

Oversize photographs, unidentified (4)

Box 14   Folder 2

Oversize photographs, unidentified (3)

Box 14   Folder 3

Oversize photograph, unidentified (1)

Box 14   Folder 4

Oversize photographs, unidentified (2)

Box 14   Folder 5

Oversize photograph, unidentified (1)