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University of Chicago Library

Guide to the Nathaniel Kleitman Papers 1896-2001

© 2008 University of Chicago Library

Descriptive Summary

Title:

Kleitman, Nathaniel. Papers

Dates:

1896-2001

Size:

37.25 linear feet (54 boxes)

Repository:

Special Collections Research Center
University of Chicago Library
1100 East 57th Street
Chicago, Illinois 60637 U.S.A.

Abstract:

Nathaniel Kleitman, recognized as the father of modern sleep research, served on the faculty of the University of Chicago's Department of Physiology. His papers include notes, experiment data, drafts of articles and books, academic reprints, newspaper clippings, photographs, artifacts and audio-visual recordings.

Information on Use

Access

Series V contains audio and video recordings. Due to the lack of listening access copies for recordings, researchers will need to consult with staff before using audio and visual material.

The remainder of the collection is open for research, with no restrictions.

Citation

When quoting material from this collection, the preferred citation is: Kleitman, Nathaniel. Papers [Box #, Folder #], Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library

Biographical Note

Nathaniel Kleitman was born in Kishinev, Russia in 1895. He came to the US in 1915 and earned his B.S. degree four years later from what is now City College in New York. In 1920 he received his M.A. from Columbia University. After two years as an instructor in physiology and pharmacology at the University of Georgia, he returned to graduate school and earned his PhD in physiology from the University of Chicago in 1923. From then until 1925, a National Research Council Fellowship allowed him to study at the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands and the University of Paris. In 1925 he became a faculty member in physiology at Chicago, where he would spend the next 35 years, until his retirements as a full professor in 1960.

Dr. Kleitman was the first scholar to concentrate entirely on sleep research and is internationally recognized as the founder of his field. In 1939, the University of Chicago Press published his collection of sleep studies, Sleep and Wakefulness (revised in 1963 and 1987), which became the foundational text for sleep research.

Dr. Kleitman, his assistants, students and even family were themselves subjects in many of his early sleep experiments. In an effort to see if human subjects—namely, himself and an assistant, Bruce Richardson—could adapt to a 28-hour day, they lived in Mammoth Cave for over a month in 1938. Since the temperature in the cave was perpetually 54 degrees and there was no natural light, there were no environmental cues to the time of day. Though Dr. Kleitman could not sleep until 10 pm surface time, Mr. Richardson adapted. In the cave, Dr. Kleitman measured body temperature and discovered that there was a slight but regular fluctuation throughout the day, and that peak efficiency occurred while the body temperature was highest. He later applied this knowledge to recommendations that soldiers and industrial staff work regular shifts so that their bodies could adjust to a 24 hour cycle, allowing them to stay more alert than if they continually switched shifts.

His research took Dr. Kleitman to other unusual places. In 1948 he spent two weeks on a submarine, the U.S.S. Dogfish, studying the effects of mental alertness as a result of temperature changes. He recommended a system of watch scheduling that took into consideration the normal patterns of sleep and body temperature, arguing that too many men went on duty when their body temperatures and alertness were low. He also once traveled to Tromso, in northern Norway, to see if inhabitants of the Artic Circle, where winter plunges the sky into months of darkness while summer brings unending daylight, slept on a different schedule. The answer was no.

The discovery of rapid-eye movement (R.E.M.) sleep came in 1953. Dr. Keitman and his student Dr. Eugene Aserinsky recorded regular periods of jerky eye movements during sleep. They also showed that people who were awakened in

this period, recalled having dreams, while those awakened in non-R.E.M sleep did not. The discovery of R.E.M., in addition to Kleitman's other sleep research, eventually led to a much greater understanding of the sleep process in general and to the discovery of sleep disorders.

Scope Note

This collection contains the papers of Nathaniel Kleitman, the father of sleep research. The collection is divided into 6 series.

Series I, Biographical, contains information on the life of Nathaniel Kleitman, including obituaries, interview texts, bibliographies and memorial publications.

Series II: Research and Writings, is organized by research topic and contains research data (charts, tables and graphs), article drafts, and notes of Nathaniel Kleitman. Here information from a wide variety of sleep research experiments can be found, including data collected both by Kleitman himself, as well as by his students and colleagues. Edited manuscripts of Kleitman's book Sleep and Wakefulness can be found in Boxes 4-7. Oversized materials from this series are located in Boxes 35-46 of Series VI, containing Kleitman's bibliographic card catalog. A key to Kleitman's color code system used in his card catalog can be found in Box 15 Folder 8.

Series III: Print Publications is organized alphabetically and contains the printed materials Kleitman had collected. These include numerous clippings from newspapers and magazines containing references to sleep in articles, advertisements and cartoons. This series also contains Kleitman's collection of academic reprints, organized alphabetically. Boxes 16 and 17 contain reprints of Kleitman's writings. Oversized materials from this series have been moved to Series VI Boxes 47-49, including newspaper clippings from the Mammoth Cave experiment and other sleep articles.

Series IV, Artifacts and Memorabilia, is organized by format or document type. Here, Kleitman's travel documents, awards, certificates, graduation programs, medals and other memorabilia can be found. Oversized materials from this series have been moved to Series VI Boxes 50-54, including equipment used in Kleitman's research.

Series V: Audio-Visual and Photographs, is organized by format. The photographs in this series include family photographs of Kleitman throughout his life, as well as photographs from his research including ones documenting his time spent in Mammoth Cave. This series also includes audio recordings of Kleitman lectures, videocassette interviews and sleep specials. Oversized materials from this series, including two LP records, have been moved from this series to Series VI Box 53.

Series VI: Oversized Materials contains materials transferred from Series I-V. Descriptive headings can be used to trace these materials to their original locations in Series I-V.

Related Resources

The following related resources are located in the Department of Special Collections:

http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/e/spcl/select.html

Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep. Records

University of Chicago. Department of Physiology. Records

Subject Headings

INVENTORY

Series I: Biographical

Box 1   Folder 1

"A Tribute to Nathaniel Kleitman," Archives Italiennes de Biologie, A Journal of Neuroscience, 2001

Box 1   Folder 2

Bibliography and biographical information for Nathaniel Kleitman, 2000

Box 1   Folder 3

Bibliography for Nathaniel Kleitman, undated

Box 1   Folder 4

Interview by Mel Stuart, questions and correspondence, 1991

Box 1   Folder 5

Interview for archival purposes by Jerry Vogel, correspondence, 1989-1990

Box 1   Folder 6

Obituaries for Nathaniel Kleitman, 1999

Series II: Research and Writings

Box 1   Folder 7

Effects of caffeine and narcotics on dogs, research charts and tables, 1922

Box 1   Folder 8

Sleeplessness in dogs, unpublished charts and tables, 1923

Box 1   Folder 9

Rabbits and MgSO4, research charts and tables, 1925

Box 1   Folder 10

Reflexes in dogs, unpublished research charts and tables, 1926

Box 2   Folder 1-2

Saliva references and results, 1927-1939

Box 2   Folder 3

Decorticated dogs, research charts, tables and references, 1929- 1937

Box 2   Folder 4

Feiveson on goldfish and Carmile on dogs research notes, charts and tables, 1930-1931

Box 2   Folder 5

Salivation, morphine, thyroid research on dogs, unpublished charts and tables, 1930

Box 3   Folder 1

Goldfish learning research notes, charts and tables, 1931-1959

Box 3   Folder 2

Animal research charts and tables, 1939-1942

Box 3   Folder 3

Norway, perpetual day sleep cycle research, notes and correspondence, 1937-1951

Box 3   Folder 4

Norway research trip, correspondence, 1946-1951

Box 3   Folder 5

"Sleep Wakefulness Pattern in the Artic," article draft and research tables, 1949

Box 3   Folder 6

Motility, research tables and charts, 1932

Box 3   Folder 7

Orthogenic School, motility, research tables and charts, 1936

Box 3   Folder 8

Sleep patterns, Hortense and Esther Kleitman, research tables and charts, 1937-1938

Box 3   Folder 9

Sleep records, Hortense and Esther Kleitman, 1938-1940

Box 4   Folder 1

Sleep records, Hortense and Esther Kleitman, 1938-1940

Box 4   Folder 2

Sleep motility, bed board hammock, research charts and tables, 1939

Box 4   Folder 3

Motility board mattress, research charts and tables, 1942

Box 4   Folder 4-5

Mobility records, Hortense and Esther Kleitman, foot of bed raised, 1943-1944

Box 4   Folder 6

Mobility records, Hortense and Esther Kleitman, 1942

Box 4   Folder 7

Sleep and Wakefulness, advertisements and reviews, 1938-1962

Box 4   Folder 8

Sleep and Wakefulness, handwritten manuscript, chapters 1-21, undated

Box 4   Folder 9

Sleep and Wakefulness, handwritten manuscript, chapters 22-36, undated

Box 5   Folder 1-3

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, edited, bibliography and author index, undated

Box 5   Folder 4

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, edited, chapters 1-9, 1962

Box 5   Folder 5

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, edited, chapters 10-17, 1962

Box 5   Folder 6

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, edited, chapters 18-26, 1962

Box 5   Folder 7

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, edited, chapters 27-36, 1962

Box 6   Folder 1

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, edited, legends to figures, 1962

Box 6   Folder 2

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, edited, subject index, 1962

Box 6   Folder 3

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, edited, chapters 1-8, undated

Box 6   Folder 4

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, edited, chapters 9-19, undated

Box 6   Folder 5

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, edited, chapters 20-28, undated

Box 6   Folder 6

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, edited, chapters 29-36, undated

Box 6   Folder 7

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, chapters 1-10, 1962

Box 7   Folder 1

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, chapters 11-22, 1962

Box 7   Folder 2

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, chapters 23-32, 1962

Box 7   Folder 3

Sleep and Wakefulness, typed manuscript, chapters 33-36, 1962

Box 7   Folder 4

Sleep and Wakefulness, reviews and comments, 1937-1941

Box 7   Folder 5-6

Sleep and Wakefulness, revised edition, reviews and comments, 1961-1972

Box 8   Folder 1

Body temperature fluctuations, research notes and articles, 1936- 1946

Box 8   Folder 2

Unconditioned and conditioned galvanic skin responses, research by Ned Porte, 1938-1940

Box 8   Folder 3

Leg volume and body temperature, research notes and charts, 1940-1941

Box 8   Folder 4-7

Body temperature, research notes and charts, 1940-1942

Box 8   Folder 8

Body temperature, research notes and charts, Hortense and Esther Kleitman, 1941-1951

Box 8   Folder 9

Ramsaroop, research notes and tables, 1943-1944

Box 8   Folder 10

Research notes, charts, and tables, 1943-1945

Box 9   Folder 1

Variations of leg volume with activity, research charts and tables, 1944

Box 9   Folder 2

Body temperature, research by R. B. Frost, 1946

Box 9   Folder 3

YMCA volleyball championship research charts and tables, 1946

Box 9   Folder 4

YMCA volleyball research group, questionnaires and tables, 1946

Box 9   Folder 5-6

Skin temperature studies, research notes and charts, 1947

Box 9   Folder 7

Skin temperatures, hardy dermal radiometer, research notes and charts, 1947

Box 10   Folder 1

Koenig-Thyroid temperature research notes and tables, 1948-1949

Box 10   Folder 2

Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF) research notes, charts and tables, 1949

Box 10   Folder 3

Heart rate charts, 1954-1956

Box 10   Folder 4

Temperature recordings, 1959

Box 10   Folder 5

"Periodicity in Body Temperature and Heart Rate" article by N. Kleitman and A. Ramsaroop, typed draft, 1959

Box 10   Folder 6-7

Experimental work schedules, correspondence, 1941-1952

Box 10   Folder 8

Military sleep wakefulness efficiency, correspondence, 1942-1943

Box 11   Folder 1

USS Dogfish, notes and tables, 1948

Box 11   Folder 2

Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI), correspondence, 1948- 1956

Box 11   Folder 3

Submarine sleeping watch patterns, correspondence and questionnaires, 1949-1950

Box 11   Folder 4

Submarine trial of new sleep schedule, correspondence and questionnaire replies, 1949

Box 11   Folder 5

Submarine sleep pattern research, charts and correspondence, 1951-1953

Box 11   Folder 6

USS Scabbardfish, correspondence, 1952

Box 11   Folder 7

Experimental schedule, comments and correspondence, 1952- 1958

Box 11   Folder 8

United States Army Engineer Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL), Tulane Symposium on Flicker, 1957

Box 11   Folder 9

"A Scientific Solution of the Multiple Shift Problem," article draft, undated

Box 11   Folder 10

Chlorides, phosphates and body temperature, research notes and charts, 1925

Box 11   Folder 11

Phosphates, research notes and charts, 1934

Box 11   Folder 12

Bromine research notes, charts and tables, 1936-1937

Box 11   Folder 13

Alcohol on reaction time and Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF), research notes and charts, 1937-1948

Box 12    Folder 1-2

Alcohol research notes and charts, 1947-1948

Box 12    Folder 3

MER-32 consultation, correspondence and brochure, 1959

Box 12    Folder 4

Sleep characteristics of infants, research notes and charts, 1940-1959

Box 12    Folder 5

Sleep patterns in infants, tables, charts and participant information, 1949-1950

Box 12    Folder 6

Sleep patterns in infants, lab notes and charts, 1949

Box 12    Folder 7

National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Environmental Protection Division, field sleeping, correspondence and reports, 1952-1955

Box 12    Folder 8

National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Environmental Protection Division, reports on sleep, 1955

Box 12    Folder 9

Inquiries concerning sleep research, correspondence, 1931-1989

Box 12    Folder 10

Sleep articles, correspondence, 1925-1945

Box 12    Folder 11

Sleep research, correspondence, 1936-1946

Box 12    Folder 12

Mammoth Cave, correspondence, 1938

Box 13   Folder 1

Sleep films, scripts, notes and correspondence, 1959-1966

Box 13   Folder 2

Article reprint requests, 1960-1996

Box 13   Folder 3

Biological rhythms and cycles, research notes, outline and bibliography, 1948-1959

Box 13   Folder 4

Sleep wakefulness cycle, notes and article drafts, 1953-1956

Box 13   Folder 5

Rest activity cycle, sleep records and research, 1964-1972

Box 13   Folder 6

Brain rest activity cycle (BRAC) and circadian rhythms, articles and notes, 1964-1979

Box 13   Folder 7

Syllabus for Physiology 101, prepared by Nathaniel Kleitman, 1942

Box 13   Folder 8

University of Chicago Board of Trustees, memorandum, 1944-1945

Box 13   Folder 9

Conferences and symposiums on sleep research, programs, abstracts and articles, 1958-1990

Box 14   Folder 1

Conferences and symposiums on sleep research, programs, abstracts and articles, 1958-1990

Box 14   Folder 2

Conferences and symposiums on sleep research, programs and correspondence, 1963-1970

Box 14   Folder 3

"The Pupillometer," experiment and instrument guide, undated

Box 14   Folder 4

Articles on sleep by Samuel Edwin Anderson and George Johnson, typescripts, 1916-1943

Box 14   Folder 5

Notes for articles and lectures, 1928-1955

Box 14   Folder 6

"Ocular Motility During Sleep and its Application to the Study of Rest Activity Cycles and Dreaming," by Eugene Aserinsky, 1953

Box 14   Folder 7

Rapid eye movement articles by William Dement, 1955-1958

Box 14   Folder 8

Mademoiselle magazine, article on sleep by Nathaniel Kleitman, 1962-1963

Box 14   Folder 9

Scripts and speeches, 1970-1985

Box 14   Folder 10

Life and physiology, article drafts for encyclopedia, undated

Box 15   Folder 1

Sleeplessness experiments, research findings, notes and charts, 1922-1923

Box 15   Folder 2

Lee and Kleitman, research notes, tables and charts, 1923

Box 15   Folder 3-5

Sleep research, notes, tables and charts, 1925-1947

Box 15   Folder 6

Dream transcripts and sleep record sheets, 1942-1954

Box 15   Folder 7

Sleep, writing drafts, undated

Box 15   Folder 8

Key for color-coded system used on bibliographic cards, undated

Series III: Print Publications

Box 15   Folder 9

"An Annotated Bibliography of Flicker Fusion Phenomena," 1953

Box 15   Folder 10

Articles on sleep and body temperature, faculty news, 1937-1999

Box 15   Folder 11

"Chicago" anthology on the World's Fair, 1933

Box 16   Folder 1-2

Infant and child care, article reprints, 1945-1963

Box 16   Folder 3

Kleitman's writings, photocopies of published articles, 1921-1924

Box 16   Folder 4-6

Kleitman's writings, reprints and copies of articles, 1924-1993

Box 17   Folder 1-2

Kleitman's writings, reprints and copies of articles, 1924-1993

Box 17   Folder 3-6

Reprints and articles, A-B, 1922-1962

Box 18   Folder 1-7

Reprints and articles, B-F, 1922-1962

Box 19   Folder 1-7

Reprints and articles, G-J, 1922-1962

Box 20   Folder 1-6

Reprints and articles, J-L, 1922-1962

Box 21   Folder 1-8

Reprints and articles, M-R, 1922-1962

Box 22   Folder 1-5

Reprints and articles, R-W, 1922-1962

Box 23   Folder 1-2

Reprints and articles, V-Z, 1922-1962

Box 23   Folder 3

Sleep publications, notes, 1958

Box 23   Folder 4-7

Sleep references in magazine articles, 1938-1959

Box 24   Folder 1-3

Sleep references in magazine articles, 1955-1992

Box 24   Folder 4-5

Sleep references in advertisements, newspaper and magazine clippings, 1936-1958

Box 25   Folder 1-7

Sleep references in articles and advertisements, newspaper and magazine clippings, 1924-1959

Box 26   Folder 1-6

Sleep references in articles and advertisements, newspaper and magazine clippings, 1938-1996

Box 27   Folder 1-6

Sleep references in articles and advertisements, newspaper and magazine clippings, 1938-1996

Box 28   Folder 1-5

Sleep references in articles and advertisements, newspaper and magazine clippings, 1938-1996

Box 29   Folder 1

Sleep references in cartoons, newspaper clippings, 1941-1949

Box 29   Folder 2

University of Chicago, publications, 1921-1932

Box 29   Folder 3

War ration material, newspaper clippings, 1943

Series IV: Artifacts and Memorabilia

Box 29   Folder 4

American Men and Women of Science, correspondence, 1988

Box 29   Folder 5

Awards in honor of Nathaniel Kleitman, 1982-1995

Box 29   Folder 6

Commencement Ceremony programs, Nathaniel Kleitman graduations, 1919-1923

Box 29   Folder 7

Conferences, invitations and souvenirs, 1929-1949

Box 29   Folder 8

Identification cards, University of Chicago and Naval Medical Research Institute, circa 1950

Box 29   Folder 9

Travel papers, 1915-1949

Box 29   Folder 10

Travel papers and identification, 1905-1948

Box 29   Folder 11

Special Submarine Deck, playing cards, undated

Box 30   Folder 1

American Physiological Society 50 Year Member Award, medal and correspondence, 1992

Box 30   Folder 2

International Physiological Congress Medal, undated

Box 30   Folder 3

The Thomas W. Salmon Medal for Distinguished Service in Psychiatry, 1966

Box 30   Folder 4

Townsend Harris Medal, 1947

Series V: Audio-Visual Material and Photographs

Box 30   Folder 5

Film on reflex action for physiology students, correspondence and 16mm film reel, 1932

Box 31   Folder 1

First annual Nathaniel Kleitman prize award ceremony, audiocassette tape, 1981

Box 31   Folder 2

Archival video histories of sleep researchers, "An Interview with Nathaniel Kleitman," videocassette tape, 1990

Box 31   Folder 3

Kleitman Cave Marathon Dancing, correspondence and videocassette tape, 2001

Box 31   Folder 4

Talk delivered by Nathaniel Kleitman at Sepulveda VA Hospital, 7 inch audio reel, 1971

Box 32

Encyclopaedia Britannica "The Human Brain," 7 inch film reel

Box 33   Folder 1

Drs. Kleitman, Dement, Aserinsky and Jouvet, photographs, 1996

Box 33   Folder 2

Faculty, photographs, undated

Box 33   Folder 3-4

Mammoth Cave, photographs, 1938

Box 33   Folder 5

Nathaniel Kleitman, photographs, 1927-1956

Box 33   Folder 6

Nathaniel Kleitman and family, photographs, 1896-1984

Box 33   Folder 7

Nathaniel Kleitman and sleep experiments, photographs, 1959- 1973

Box 33   Folder 8

Sleep and Wakefulness, negatives of draft, undated

Box 33   Folder 9

Data charts and graphs, photographs and negatives, 1962

Box 33   Folder 10

Murray, illustrations and negatives, 1962

Box 34

Data charts and figures, glass slides, undated

Series VI: Oversized Materials

Box 35

Research and writing, bibliographic card catalog, index cards, A-C, undated

Box 36

Research and writing, bibliographic card catalog, index cards, C-G, undated

Box 37

Research and writing, bibliographic card catalog, index cards, G-K, undated

Box 38

Research and writing, bibliographic card catalog, index cards, K-M, undated

Box 39

Research and writing, bibliographic card catalog, index cards, N-S, undated

Box 40

Research and writing, bibliographic card catalog, index cards, S-Z, undated

Box 41

Research and writing, bibliographic card catalog, index cards, A-Z, undated

Box 42

Research and writing, bibliographic card catalog, index cards, A-K, undated

Box 43

Research and writing, bibliographic card catalog, index cards, K-M, undated

Box 44

Research and writing, bibliographic card catalog, index cards, M-Z, undated

Box 45

Research and writing, name index, index cards, undated

Box 46

Research and writing, reprint requests, postcards, 1945-1978

Box 47

Print publications, articles on Kleitman and other sleep experiments, newspaper and magazine clippings, 1938-1951

Box 48

Print publications, magazines containing sleep articles, 1932-1966

Box 49

Print publications, sleep references in articles, scrapbooks containing newspaper and magazine clippings, 1936-1941

Box 50

Artifacts and memorabilia, 3 wooden boxes containing surgical tools, undated

Box 50

Artifacts and memorabilia, Counter Dot Photo Interpreter tool, undated

Box 50

Artifacts and memorabilia, pen light, undated

Box 50

Artifacts and memorabilia, unidentified geological samples, undated

Box 50

Artifacts and memorabilia, magnifying spectacles, undated

Box 51

Artifacts and memorabilia, goggles on wooden mount, undated

Box 52

Artifacts and memorabilia, award certificates and diplomas, 1919-1947

Box 53   Folder 1

Artifacts and memorabilia, American Sleep Disorders Association Honorary Fellowship certificate, 1989

Box 53   Folder 2

Artifacts and memorabilia, Distinguished Service Award of the Thomas W. Salmon Committee on Psychiatry and Mental Hygiene, certificate and correspondence, 1966-1967

Box 53   Folder 3

Artifacts and memorabilia, sleep posters, 1929-1951

Box 53   Folder 4

Artifacts and memorabilia, Thames River Navy certificate, 1948

Box 53   Folder 5

Artifacts and memorabilia, University of Chicago Alumni Association Professional Achievement Award, certificate, program correspondence, 1970

Box 53   Folder 6

Artifacts and memorabilia, University of Chicago Club of Greater Los Angeles Distinguished Alumnus Award, certificate and correspondence, 1969

Box 53   Folder 7

Audio visual and photographs, "We The People," Professor Kleitman spot, LP record, July 1st, 1947

Box 53   Folder 8

Audio visual and photographs, Time To Sleep, LP record and correspondence, 1947

Box 54

Artifacts and memorabilia, ammunition box, undated

Box 54

Audio visual and photographs, data charts and figures, glass slides, undated