Frank Rattray Lillie, born in Toronto in 1870, came with Charles Whitman to the University of Chicago from Clark University in 1892. He received his PhD in physiological embryology summa cum laude in 1894. He replaced Whitman as director of the Marine Biological Laboratory in 1908, a position he held until 1925. He was chairman of the University of Chicago's Department of Zoology from 1910 until 1931 and served as dean of the Division of Biological Sciences from 1931 until 1935. He founded the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute in 1930, and was appointed president of both the National Research Council and National Academy of Sciences in 1935. He died in Chicago in 1947 and was buried at Woods Hole.

Among Lillie's many students was Charles Henry Turner, an African American from Cincinnati. In 1907 Turner received his PhD magna cum laude at age 40, then began a career teaching biology at Sumner High School, an all African-American public school in St. Louis. His publication list in well-regarded scientific journals is long, and describes his extensive research on feeding behavior, color vision, pattern recognition, and orientation in insects and spiders. Turner died in February, 1923.

Headshot of a man with a mustache.
Frank Rattray Lillie

From the Photographic Archive, Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library. Available at: Identifier: apf1-03876.

Headshot of an African-American man with a mustache.
Charles Henry Turner

Photo from: Culp, Daniel Wallace, Twentieth Century Negro LiteratureJ. L. Nichols and Co. 1902. Available at Project Gutenberg.