About this Exhibit

Race and the Design of American Life: African Americans in Twentieth-Century Commercial Art was curated by Chris Dingwall, PhD Candidate, Department of History at the University of Chicago. The exhibition dates are October 14, 2013 - January 4, 2014.

This project would not be possible without the knowledge, guidance, and encouragement of Leora Auslander, Bill Brown, Paul Durica, Korey Garibaldi, Theaster Gates, Adam Green, Neil Harris, Valerie Harris, Thomas Holt, Bob Koester, Amy Lippert, Victor Margolin, Dan Meyer, Celeste Day Moore, Tim Samuelson, Alice Schreyer, Joe Scott, Amy Dru Stanley, Hamza Walker, Sarah Jones Weicksel, Kate Hadley Williams, and Gwen Zabicki. The exhibit also benefited from the generosity of Dennis Adrian, Tim Samuelson, and the Special Collections and University Archives Department at University of Illinois at Chicago's Richard J. Daley Library, who loaned items from their collections.

The Web exhibit was produced by Joe Scott with the assistance of Kevin Kimura. Bradley Busenius provided technical and graphic design support.


Auslander, Leora and Thomas C. Holt. "Sambo in Paris: Race and Racism in the Iconography of the Everyday." In Sue Peabody and Tyler Stovall, eds., The Color of Liberty: Histories of Race in France. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003: 147-84.

Bader, Barbara. American Picturebooks: from Noah's Ark to the Beast Within. New York: Macmillan, 1976.

Baker, Houston A. Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Baker, Stacey Menzel. "From Despicable to Collectible: the Evolution of Collective Memories for and the Value of Black Advertising Memorabilia,"Journal of American Advertising 33.3 (Autumn 2004): 37-50.

Bernstein, Robin. Racial Innocence: Performing Childhood and Race from Slavery to Civil Rights. New York: New York University Press, 2011.

Brown, Bill. "Reification, Reanimation, and the American Uncanny," Critical Inquiry 32 (Winter 2006): 175-207.

Chambers, Jason. Madison Avenue and the Color Line: African Americans in the Advertising Industry. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

Cohen, Lizabeth. A Consumers' Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America. New York: Vintage, 2003.

Cox, Karen L. Dreaming of Dixie: How the South was Created in American Popular Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

Dougherty, Carissa Kowalski. "The Coloring of Jazz: Race and Record Cover Design in American Jazz, 1950 to 1970," Design Issues 23.1 (Winter 2007): 47-60.

Du Bois, W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1903.

Dubin, Steven C. "Symbolic Slavery: Black Representations in Popular Culture," Social Problems 34.2 (April 1987): 122-40.

Frank, Thomas. The Conquest of Cool: Business Culture, Counterculture, and the Rise of Hip Consumerism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., "The Trope of a New Negro and the Reconstruction of the Image of the Black," Representations 24 (Autumn 1988): 129-55.

Goings, Kenneth W. Mammy and Uncle Mose: Black Collectibles and American Stereotyping. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Gould, John W. "Black Consumer Reactions to 'Integrated' Advertising: An Exploratory Study," Journal of Marketing 34.3 (July 1970): 20-26.

Green, Adam. Selling the Race: Culture, Community, and Black Chicago, 1940-1955. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Harris, Neil. Cultural Excursions: Marketing Appetites and Cultural Tastes in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

Hine, Darlene Clark, and John McCluskey, Jr., eds., The Black Chicago Renaissance. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012.

Holt, Thomas C. "Marking: Race, Race-making, and the Writing of History," American Historical Review 100.1 (February 1995): 1-20.

Holt, Thomas C. The Problem of Race in the 21st Century. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000.

Johnson, Walter. Soul by Soul: Life inside the Antebellum Slave Market. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Kassarjian, Harold H. "The Negro and American Advertising, 1946-1965," Journal of Marketing Research 6.1 (Feb. 1969): 29-39.

Knupfer, Anne Meis. "African-American Designers: The Chicago Experience Then and Now," Design Issues 16.3 (Autumn 2000): 84-91.

Leach, William. Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture. New York: Vintage, 1993.

Lears, T. J. Jackson. Fables of Abundance: A Cultural History of Advertising in America. New York: Basic Books, 1994.

Lott, Eric. Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Manring, M. M. Slave in a Box: The Strange Career of Aunt Jemima. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998.

Marable, Manning. How Capitalism Underdeveloped Black America: Problems in Race, Political Economy, and Society. 1983; rev. ed. Boston: South End Press, 2000.

Marchand, Roland. Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920-1940. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.

Meggs, Philip B. and Alston W. Purvis, Meggs' History of Graphic Design, 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2006.

Mellinger, Wayne Martin. "Postcards from the Edge of the Color Line: Images of African Americans in Popular Culture, 1893-1917," Symbolic Interaction 15.4 (Winter 1992): 413-33.

Meyerowitz, Lisa. "The Negro in Art Week: Defining the 'New Negro' through Art Exhibition," African American Review 31.1 (Spring 1997): 75-89.

Morgan, Jo-Ann. "Mammy the Huckster: Selling the Old South for the New Century," American Art 9.1 (Spring 1995): 86-109.

O'Meally, Robert G. "Jazz Albums as Art: Some Reflections," The International Review of African American Art 14.3 (1997): 38-47.

Pred, Allan. "Business Thoroughfares as Expressions of Urban Negro Culture," Economic Geography 39.3 (July 1963): 217-33.

Rooks, Noliwe M. Hair Raising: Beauty, Culture, and African American Women. New Brunswick: Rutgers University press, 1996.

Schulman, Daniel. "'White City' and 'Black Metropolis': African American Painters in Chicago, 1893–1945." In Elizabeth Kennedy, ed., Chicago Modern, 1893–1945: Pursuit of the New. Chicago: Terra Museum of American Art, 2004: 39-51.

Smith, Mark M. How Race Is Made: Slavery, Segregation, and the Senses. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

Toll, Robert C. Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Weams, Robert E. Desegregating the Dollar: African American Consumerism in the Twentieth Century. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Wilkinson, Doris Yvonne. "Racial Socialization through Children's Toys: A Sociohistorical Examination," Journal of Black Studies 5.1 (Sept. 1974): 96-109.