The University of Chicago Library
Patrologia Latina Database
Published by Chadwyck-Healey, Inc.
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Author and Title: In bibliographic searching, punctuation and spacing must match exactly that in the online bibliography. Click on the Terms Button to verify forms.
Expect Latin forms of names such as Gregorius or Hieronymus instead of Gregory or Jerome. Modern authors' names have generally been Latinized (e.g., Schoenemannus instead for Schoenemann), but not always (e.g., Hervet, Gentian). "Auctor incertus" is used when a document has no clearly specified author; "Auctores varii" for an anthology of documents or when Migne has indicated several authors for a document; and "Editores" when the text was composed by Migne or his editors.
Some titles in the database may be quite long and contain various forms of punctuation. In searching the bibliography by title, one should use a minimum number of terms, choosing a term or phrase that is unique within the bibliography or two unique words with the AND operator.
Date and Period: Exact dates have not been entered into the source data and therefore the database in not searchable by date. The main chronological sequence of authors in the database runs from about 200 C.E. to 1216 C. E. and have MED for period. Prefatory material, notes, and appendices date up to 1865 and are designated by MOD.
Code: [Taken from the Chadwyck-Healey PLD site]
The Editorial Board of the Patrologia Latina Database decided that it would benefit the user for more recent bibliographic information to be included in the coding of the data. Individual documents have therefore been given one of three codes, each corresponding to one or more of three standard reference works:
The code appears in brackets after the entry for each relevant document in the Search Results. An asterisk appearing with the code denotes that in one or more of the reference works cited, the author attribution given by Migne is queried or changed. For example:
(C)* would denote that a document has an alternative author specified
in the Clavis patrum latinorum, or that the author given
by Migne is queried.
(C,S) would denote that reference is made to the document in the Clavis patrum latinorum and the Supplementum.
(C,G,S)* would denote that reference is made to the document in all three works, and that in one or more of them Migne's author attribution is queried or an alternative author specified.
Do not expect standard orthography in this database of texts spanning more than fifteen centuries. One can find, for example, forms such as quaecumque, quaecunque, quae cumque, quae cunque, quecumque, quecunque and qaaecumque (cf. also ydolatria=idolatria, abere=habere, racio=ratio, trahicere=traicere, seperatus=separatus, cessio=sessio, zabulus=diabolus, set=sed, autor=auctor, asumptus=assumptus). The consonantal Uu and Ii appear only occasionally in the database; expect mostly Vv and Jj (e.g., serui 4 and servi over 10,000; iudex 74 and judex 6780). Enclitics such as -que, -ne, -ve, and -cum have not been cut (e.g., expect urbisque). One finds both dissimilation and assimilation (e.g., admitto / ammitto and adpono / appono). Wildcard characters and Boolean operators can help detect such anomalies. One may enter quaecu.que or qu.?ecu.que or .?udex or iudex|judex or urbis.* or a[dm]mitt.* to achieve the desired results.
Latin is a highly inflected language and the wildcard operator of period-asterisk (.*) should be used regularly (e.g., type in puell.* to find all forms of the noun puella). Nevertheless, one should use wildcard and Boolean operators only when necessary since there is currently a set limit of 3,000 for the number of unique forms into which a search term can expand. Searches that pass that limit will not run.
There are diacritics in the database, mostly for non-Latin languages. Words that contain accented characters must be entered as such; however, in order to enter words without having to pay attention to accents simply turn on Caps Lock and type in all uppercase. Thus, entering ECCLESIASTIQUE finds the word ecclésiastique. This is best since accentuation is not always consistent (e.g., one finds not only traité, but also traite and traitè in the database).
Several data-entry errors have been found in some databases either from typesetting errors in the original source or from rekeying the documents. One should avoid making arguments from silence. (e.g., qaus for quas or qoud for quod). Also, some confusion seems to have arisen between the letter "u" and the letter "n" (for example, one finds nnnc for nunc or qnod for quod).
The Migne edition of the Patrologia Latina includes references to standard editions of texts in use prior to the publication of the Patrologia Latina. These numeric references appear in bold type throughout the texts. Unfortunately, they were encoded only with a "bold" tag. There is no way, therefore, for PhiloLogic to pass over these numeric references in searching. For example, searching for subreptionem decernat generates three hits. However, a particular instance of this phrase from Leo I's Epistolae will not be found because of these bold numbers. To find this instance, one would have to type subreptionem 1217 decernat. For this reason one should run Phrase Searches with some caution; try a Proximity Search within the same sentence instead.
Punctuation and Full-Text
Hyphens: Hypens act as word separators. Thus, one should treat hypenated expressions as separate words excluding the hyphen (e.g. if searching for Pseudo-Augustinus, type in pseudo augustinus.)
Apostrophes: One must include apostrophes when searching words with apostrophes and one must insert a space after apostrophes since in this database, which contains more French and Italian than English, apostrophes act as word separators (e.g., only by typing d' amour will one find "d'amour"). English possessives and contractions must also be entered with a space after the apostrophe (e.g., to search for "Tertullian's" enter Tertullian' s).
Ampersands: The ampersand (&) is not a searchable character. Avoid Phrase Searches where an ampersand may be used as a conjunction.
Formatting and Display:
Character Display: At this time, Greek characters display but cannot be searched.
Results Display: "Page" numbers displayed in the linked citations refer to the volume number and column number in Migne. Also, please be advised that, when searching for two or more terms within the same paragraph, the concordance report expands the amount of text displayed to include all of the search terms in the paragraph. At times this text can be several screens in length since some paragraph divisions in documents in this database are very far apart.
Notes: There are notes throughout Patrologia Latina Database. In PhiloLogic notes never interfere when searching the text to which they refer. Note references are linked to notes and text from notes are linked to page references.
Images: There are several images throughout the database. Most are displayed as inline images once the user pulls up any level of context (e.g., page, paragraph, h3, h2, and h1), but not from a first-level results screen.
Full-Text Searching Using PhiloLogic
The term(s) to be searched in selected documents are entered into the
Search for: box on the search-form. Word searches in
PhiloLogic are by default case insensitive, so that a search finds
both lower and upper case representations of words. The user must,
however, take into account diacritics when searching databases that have accented characters. PhiloLogic's wildcard
characters may also be employed to match many forms. The simplest
search in PhiloLogic is a single term search without wildcards. If
searching for a term such as "peccatum" in the database, simply type the word
peccatum into the Search for: box and press the
Tip: At this time, only the first 999,000 occurrences of a word are available in the results formats "Occurrences with Context" and "Occurrences Line by Line." Because EEBO-TCP is a very large database, one will encounter this limit with some regularity. One can limit a search by using the bibliographic fields or one can run a Frequency by Title search, from which all occurrences are available.
Wildcard Characters in Full-Text Searching
Wildcard characters allow the user to enter a single search entry that may find many forms. This is in contrast to a simple word search which requires an exact match in order to find a word. Wildcard characters can be useful, for example, in identifying cognates made obscure by affixes and vowel weakening, inconsistencies due to irregular orthography, and variations on account of word inflection as well as for discovering potential emendations for uncertain readings. The most commonly used wildcards are listed below.
Accents and Special Characters
PhiloLogic requires that one take into account diacritics when searching documents with accented characters in both bibliographic and full-text searching. The system provides three ways to search for accented characters: 1) simply type the required accented character from the keyboard; 2) use a capital letter to match all accented and non-accented forms of a letter; or 3) enter the two character representations listed below.
Tip: If you do not want to have to think about accents, turn on "Caps Lock" and type in all uppercase. This is recommended since accentuation varies: one finds, for example, naivete, naivetè, and naïveté in databases. Be sure to enter and, or, and not in lowercase in phrase searches.
Punctuation and Full-Text Searching
All punctuation should be stripped from word searches except for apostrophes. Apostrophes must be entered as characters.
Formatting (e.g., font shifts, superscript, subscript, italics, bold, underline, etc.) are ignored in a search (e.g., search 1st simply as 1st).
Selecting a Search Option:
One may use upper or lower case letters; searches are case insensitive. Wildcards can be used in all search options. Be sure to review sections on accentuation and punctuation in full-text searching.
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