The University of Chicago Library
Voltaire électronique
Published by Chadwyck-Healey, Inc.
Database Home Bibliography: Voltaire Bibliography: Secondary Sample Searches Database-Specific Searching Tips User Manual

§Search in Texts for: (e.g., serment)
Note: For pattern matching one may employ wildcard characters (e.g., pardon* retrieves pardon, pardonner, pardonait, pardonn^eacute;, etc.). To search without considering diacritics turn on "Caps Lock" and type in all uppercase (e.g., NAIVETE finds both naïvete and naïveté).
§ Select a Search Option: Single Term and Phrase Search (default) Phrase separated by words or fewer
Proximity Searching in the same Sentence or in the same Paragraph
§ Select a Results Format: Occurrences with Context (default)    Occurrences Line by Line

§Limit your search by the following fields:
Author   (e.g., Voltaire or NA)
Title   (e.g., Oedipe)
Publication Date (e.g., 1733 or 1760-1778)
Literary Form   (e.g., P=poésie; See codes below)
Imprint   (e.g., Cramer et Bardin)
      Sort bibliographic searches by:   Click to sort Word Search results.

§Text Object Fields:
Heading   (e.g., Polyeucte)
Tag (e.g., Enter Note to search in notes only)

§Refined Search Results:
Frequency by Title    Frequency by Title per 10,000
  Frequency by Author Frequency by Author per 10,000 [Check to hide titles]
  Frequency by Years   Frequency by Years per 10,000
      Select Year Group  [Check to hide titles]
  Frequency by Poem
  Collocation Table Spanning words. Turn Filter Off: Filtered Words
  Word in Clause Position (Theme-Rheme)   Display Options:
  Line by Line (KWIC) Sorted by keyword and word to its Display up to occurrences.
  Word Similarity (Entering Charlemagne finds Charlemagne, Charlesmagne, etc.; a word must be of 5 characters or more.)
Return to: Occurrences with Context  or Occurrences Line by Line


General User Documentation for PhiloLogic

Database-Specific Searching Tips

Bibliographic Searching:
Author and Title: In bibliographic searching, punctuation and spacing must match exactly that in the online bibliography.
To search only the works of Voltaire type voltaire in the author field. (To search only texts about Voltaire's works enter 1998 in the Date field or secondary material in the Title field.) Some scholars' names of secondary material contain
accented characters and must be entered as such; however, in order to enter names without having to pay attention to accents simply turn on Caps Lock and type in uppercase. Thus, entering JOSE-MICHEL MOUREAUX finds works by José-Michel Moureaux.
Some titles in Voltaire électronique are quite long and may contain various forms of punctuation and accentuation. In searching the bibliography by title, one should use a minimum number of terms, choosing a term or terms that are unique within the bibliography. Note: at this time the following punctuation marks and symbols produce a "No documents found" message: parentheses (( )), ampersand (&), left single (`) and double quotes (""), and square brackets ([ ]). Thus block-copying a title such as Madrigal ['Ah! Camargo, que vous êtes brillante' ] will produce a "No documents found" message. Try the most distinctive word or string such as camargo or a wildcard character (period) for the marks of punctuation (e.g., Madrigal ..Ah! Camargo, que vous Etes brillante). The following punctuation marks have no adverse effect on a title search and, if appearing within a string, must be entered: comma, period, hyphen, apostrophe, colon, semi-colon, question mark, exclamation mark, and forward slash (/). In all cases, spacing must match exactly that in the bibliography. Please note that a space must be entered after an apostrophe (e.g., search for d' un to find d'un).
Date: The texts in the database by Voltaire range in date from 1704 to 1778. In most cases the date of composition is given; if in doubt a conjectural date may be given; if unknown, the date of the first publication is given. The secondary works range in date from 1968 on, but can only be searched by date by entering 1998, the date of the electronic edition, in the date field. To limit a search to only texts about Voltaire's works, enter 1998 in the date field.
Literary Form: To limit one's search to a particular literary form, simply enter the code into the Literary Form box. One may search more than one literary form at a time; the vertical bar ( | ) serves as the OR operator (e.g., entering P|T searches both Poésie and Théâtre).

Orthographic Considerations:
There is no unusual orthography in this database. Words that contain accented characters must be entered as such; however, in order to enter words without having to pay attention to accents simply turn on Caps Lock and type in all uppercase. Thus, entering HELENE finds the name Hélène. This is best since accentuation is not always consistent, especially since an initial capital letter often loses its diacritic (one can find, for example, the following four forms in the database: epitre, epître, épitre, and épître).

Data-Entry Idiosyncrasies:
Several data-entry errors have been found in some databases either from typesetting errors in the original source or from rekeying the documents. One should avoid making arguments from silence. In particular, look out for the transposition of letters (e.g., qoui for quoi) or the doubling of letters (e.g., mauuvaise for mauvaise). Also, some confusion occasionally seems to have arisen between the letter "v" and the letter "u" (e.g., ouurage, trouué and sauuer) and between the letter "g" and the letter "q" (e.g., qouverneur). Wildcard characters or Boolean operators can help detect such anomalies. One may enter mau.?vaise or ouvrage|ouurage or ou.rage to achieve the desired results.

Punctuation and Full-Text Searching:
Hyphens: Hypens act as word separators. Thus, one should treat hypenated expressions as separate words excluding the hyphen (e.g. if searching for post-apostolique, type in post apostolique.)
Apostrophes: One must include apostrophes when searching words with apostrophes and one must insert a space after apostrophes since in this database apostrophes act as word separators (e.g., only by typing d' amour will one find "d'amour "). English possessives and contractions must be entered with a space after the apostrophe (e.g., to search for "Voltaire's" or "can't" enter voltaire' s and can' t).
Ampersands: The ampersand (&) is not a searchable character. Avoid Phrase Searches where an ampersand may be used as a conjunction.

Formatting and Display:
Character Display: At this time, Greek characters display but cannot be searched.
Results Display: Please be advised that, when searching for two or more terms within the same paragraph, the concordance report expands the amount of text displayed to include all of the search terms in the paragraph. At times this text can be several screens in length since some paragraph divisions in documents in this database are very far apart.
Pagination: Texts from the Moland edition do not include page numbers. If one clicks on page????? on the results screen, one retrieves the entire text. For greater context click on paragraph or sections and sub-sections listed, which are available in Concordance Results Format.
Notes: There are notes throughout Voltaire électronique. These include notes written by Voltaire himself, variant readings, and other editorial notes. In PhiloLogic notes never interfere when searching the text to which they refer. To search only the text within notes enter Notes in the Division Objects Field Type and then enter keyword(s) in the "Search in Texts for:" box.
Images: There are several images throughout the database. They are displayed as inline images or links to images once the user pulls up any level of context (e.g., page, paragraph, or section), but not from a first-level results screen. To find an image search the phrase: petite planche and click on paragraph.

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