The University of Chicago Library
Kafkas Werke
Published by Chadwyck-Healey, Inc.
Database Home Bibliography Sample Searches Help User Manual

Search in Texts: (e.g., unglUck or Unglück)
For pattern matching one may employ wildcard characters (e.g., wolke* will retrieve Wolke, wolkenbedeckten, etc.). Accented characters may be represented by two characters (e.g., u"=ü) or uppercase letters. In full-text searching the vertical bar (|) serves as the OR operator (e.g., Geist|Gespenst or hellen|blauen Himmel) and the exclamation point (!) serves as the NOT operator (e.g., !kaiserliche Botschaft retrieves occurrences of Botschaft, but not kaiserliche Botschaft).

Bibliographic Fields to limit a search (use AND, OR, and NOT).
Author: (e.g., Kafka or Editor)
Title: (e.g., Verschollene)
Date: (e.g., 1912 or 1910-1915)
Genre: (e.g., ProseROM; See Options below)
Collection: (e.g., Drucke zu Lebzeiten)
Or one may use the bibliographic fields on their own to find documents, sorting the results by

Select a Search Option:
Single Term and Phrase Search [Default]
Phrase separated by words
Proximity Searching in the same Sentence or in the same Paragraph

Select a Results Format:
In Context (300 characters plus) [Default]
Line by Line (a single line of text)
Line by Line Sorted by keyword and word to its Display up to occurrences.
Frequency by Title    Frequency by Title per 10,000
Frequency by Years   Frequency by Years per 10,000
      Select Year Group  [Check to hide titles]
Collocation Table Spanning words. Turn Filter Off:
Word in Clause Position (Theme-Rheme)   Display Options:

Back to EFTS Chadwyck-Healey The ARTFL Project Conditions of Use Comments

Bibliographic Searching:
Title: In bibliographic searching, punctuation and spacing must match exactly that in the online bibliography. Many titles and authors' names contain accented characters and must be entered as such; however, in order to enter words without having to pay attention to accents simply turn on Caps Lock and type in uppercase.

Date: The texts in the database range in date from 1897 to 1924. Some texts are undated; editorial materials are all listed as undated.

Genre: The following options are available.

Orthographic Considerations:
The character esset (ß) has been resolved into double s (ss) for easier searching.

Data-Entry Idiosyncrasies:
Several data-entry errors have been found in some databases either from typesetting errors in the original source or from rekeying the documents. One should avoid making arguments from silence. In particular, look out for the transposition or doubling of letters or word-clustering.

Punctuation and Full-Text Searching:
Hyphens: Hypens act as word separators. Thus, one should treat hypenated expressions as separate words excluding the hyphen (e.g. if searching for Goethe-Schiller, type in Goethe Schiller.)
Apostrophes: One must include apostrophes when searching words with apostrophes in them (e.g., only by typing gibt's will one find "gibt's").
Ampersands: The ampersand (&) is not a searchable character. Avoid Phrase Searches where an ampersand may be used as a conjunction.

Full-Text Searching Using PhiloLogic

The term(s) to be searched in selected documents are entered into the Search for: box on the search-form. Word searches in PhiloLogic are by default case insensitive, so that a search finds both lower and upper case representations of words. The user must, however, take into account diacritics when searching databases that have accented characters. PhiloLogic's wildcard characters may also be employed to match many forms. The simplest search in PhiloLogic is a single term search without wildcards. If searching for a term such as "peccatum" in the database, simply type the word peccatum into the Search for: box and press the SEARCH button.
Tip: At this time, only the first 999,000 occurrences of a word are available in the results formats "Occurrences with Context" and "Occurrences Line by Line." Because EEBO-TCP is a very large database, one will encounter this limit with some regularity. One can limit a search by using the bibliographic fields or one can run a Frequency by Title search, from which all occurrences are available.

Boolean Operators

| (vertical bar):
serves as the OR operator (e.g., freedom|liberty retrieves instances of either). Nevertheless, uppercase OR will automatically be converted to the vertical bar during searching.
! (exclamation point)
serves as the NOT operator (e.g., !holy ghost retrieves occurrences of ghost, but not holy ghost, whereas Jesus !Christ finds occurrences of Jesus without Christ). In any case, uppercase NOT will automatically be converted to the exclamation point during searching.

Wildcard Characters in Full-Text Searching
Wildcard characters allow the user to enter a single search entry that may find many forms. This is in contrast to a simple word search which requires an exact match in order to find a word. Wildcard characters can be useful, for example, in identifying cognates made obscure by affixes and vowel weakening, inconsistencies due to irregular orthography, and variations on account of word inflection as well as for discovering potential emendations for uncertain readings. The most commonly used wildcards are listed below.

. (period):
matches any single character (e.g., gentlem.n will retrieve gentleman and gentlemen).
* (asterisk):
matches any string of characters, anchoring the match at the beginning of a word (e.g., cigar* will match cigar, cigars, cigarette, etc.), anchoring the match at the end of a word (e.g., *habit will retrieve habit, cohabit, and inhabit), or in the middle (e.g., c*eers matches compeers, cheers, and careers).
.? (period question mark):
matches the characters entered or the characters entered plus one more character in place of the question mark (e.g., hono.?r matches both honor and honour and cat.? matches cat and cats, but not cathedral, Catherine, etc.). Try co.?templa.ion to match contemplation, contemplacion, co˜templation, co˜templacion, comtemplation, and comtemplacion or ..?onderful to match wonderful and vvonderful.
[a-z] (square brackets):
matches a single character found in the specified range (e.g., [c-f]at will match cat, dat, eat, and fat) or any letters within the brackets (e.g., d[e|i]spis[i|y]ng will match despising, despisyng, dispising, and dispisyng).
Tip: If you are using wildcard characters and would like to see a full list of the words matching your search-term, then run your search as a "Frequency by Author" search. The results page of a "Frequency by Author" search lists all the terms found in a database that match your search-term.

Accents and Special Characters
PhiloLogic requires that one take into account diacritics when searching documents with accented characters in both bibliographic and full-text searching. The system provides three ways to search for accented characters: 1) simply type the required accented character from the keyboard; 2) use a capital letter to match all accented and non-accented forms of a letter; or 3) enter the two character representations listed below.
Tip: If you do not want to have to think about accents, turn on "Caps Lock" and type in all uppercase. This is recommended since accentuation varies: one finds, for example, naivete, naivetè, and naïveté in databases. Be sure to enter and, or, and not in lowercase in phrase searches.

capital letter = any form of the letter
(e. g., E matches é ê è ë and e (no accent) and É Ê È Ë and E (no accent).
grave = (\) back slash
(e.g., a\ matches à).
acute = (/) forward slash
(e.g., e/ matches é).
circumflex = (^) caret
(e.g., e^ matches ê).
cedilla = (,) comma
(e.g., c, matches ç).
ümlaut/dieresis = (") double quote
(e.g., u" matches ü).
tilde = (~) tilde
(e.g., n~ matches ñ).
ae-ligature (æ) = ae
the ligature is resolved into two letters. (e.g., to search æther type in aether).
oe-ligature (œ) = oe
the ligature is resolved into two letters. (e.g., to search œconomy type in oeconomy).

Punctuation and Full-Text Searching
All punctuation should be stripped from word searches except for apostrophes. Apostrophes must be entered as characters.

apostrophe (') = must be entered with a space following.
(e.g., to search d'amour type in d' amour.
hyphen (-) = a space
the hyphen is not a searchable character. (e.g., to search capo-mastro type in capo mastro).
ampersand (&) = should be stripped
is not a searchable character. Avoid Phrase Searches where an ampersand could be used as a conjunction.
period, question mark, exclamation point, and comma = should be stripped
are not searchable characters.
parentheses, various brackets, and double quotes = should be stripped
are not searchable characters and are word-breaking (e.g., to search vor[r]ia enter vor r ia).
common mathematical symbols
the equal sign (=) and minus sign (-) will produce a "Nothing found" message. The plus sign (+) is not a searchable character, but, if entered, will be ignored.

Text Formatting
Formatting (e.g., font shifts, superscript, subscript, italics, bold, underline, etc.) are ignored in a search (e.g., search 1st simply as 1st).

Selecting a Search Option:
One may use upper or lower case letters; searches are case insensitive. Wildcards can be used in all search options. Be sure to review sections on accentuation and punctuation in full-text searching.

Selecting a Results Format: At the head of any results format one finds the bibliographic criteria limiting one's search, the number of texts searched, the search term(s) entered, and the total number of occurrences of the search term(s) in the database. The number of occurrences displays at the bottom of the report if PhiloLogic has not detected the number before generating the first 25 occurrences on the screen. Refined Search Results: