Finding Aids

Manhattan Project and Allied Scientists

Allison, Samuel King. Papers

Samuel King Allison (1900-1965), physicist. The papers document his career at the University of Chicago, both as student and faculty member, and his research on X-rays and lithium. The papers also include material on his service as director of the Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies (1945-1965), and his chairmanship of the Physics Section of the National Academy of Sciences. The collection contains correspondence, manuscripts, notebooks, course notes, reprints, lectures, and speeches.

Anderson, Herbert L. Papers

Herbert L. Anderson (1914-1988) physicist. The papers document Anderson's participation in the Manhattan Project, including his close collaboration with Enrico Fermi, as well as his subsequent career as a researcher, teacher and administrator.

Association of Cambridge Scientists. Records

The Association of Cambridge Scientists was founded in late 1945 as a response to the growing controversy over the use of atomic energy. Membership consisted of scientists in the Boston area and composed mainly of staff at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The main purpose of the association was "to inform the general public on scientific matters when such information is pertinent to matters of public policy." The collection consists of 1 linear foot and contains correspondence, memoranda, press releases, committee minutes, and newsletters for the Association of Cambridge Scientists and associated organizations.

Association of Los Alamos Scientists. Records

The Association of Los Alamos Scientists (ALAS) was founded on August 30, 1945, by scientists who had worked on the development of the atomic bomb. The purpose of the organization was "to promote the attainment and use of scientific technological advances in the best interests of humanity." The records of the ALAS include correspondence, memoranda, reports, minutes, membership lists, financial records, press releases, newsletters, photographs and glass slides of atomic explosions. The collection documents the efforts of the ALAS to promote international control of atomic energy by sponsoring educational programs and influencing federal legislation.

Association of Oak Ridge Engineers and Scientists. Records

The Association of Oak Ridge Engineers and Scientists was formed in June 1946 as the result of the merger of organizations of scientists in Tennessee interested in the international control of atomic energy. The organizations included the Oak Ridge Engineers and Scientists (formerly the Atomic Engineers of Oak Ridge and the Atomic Production Scientists of Oak Ridge) and the Association of Oak Ridge Scientists (formerly the Association of Oak Ridge Scientists at Clinton Laboratories). The collection includes correspondence, memoranda, minutes, press releases, membership files, policy statements, constitutions and by-laws, and publications. The records document the organization's efforts to influence passage of the McMahon Bill and the National Science Bill.

Association of Pasadena Scientists. Records

The Association of Pasadena Scientists was founded late in 1945 as a response to the growing controversy over the use of atomic energy. Membership in the organization was open to scientists, graduate students, and technicians in the Pasadena area. The main purpose of the group was "to meet the increasingly apparent responsibility of scientists in promoting the welfare of mankind and the achievement of a stable world peace." The records of the Association of Pasadena Scientists cover the period 1945 to 1946 and include press releases, statements and correspondence of members of the Association.

Association of Scientists for Atomic Education. Records

The Association of Scientists for Atomic Education (ASAE) was incorporated on December 16, 1946. Its purpose was education rather than direct political agitation, and in this respect, its intention was to supplement the work of such sister organizations as the Federation of American Scientists and the National Committee for Atomic Information whose chief concern was to influence government policy. The records of the Association of Scientists for Atomic Education comprise 2 linear feet and covers the period 1945 to 1948. They have been divided into three series: Papers of the National Office, New York City; Papers of the Regional Offices; and Conference and Subject Files. The records include correspondence, minutes, by-laws and documents of incorporation, financial records, newsletters, memoranda, and press releases. The regional offices included the Atlantic Region, Central Region, Chesapeake Region, Mountain Region, Pacific Region and the Southern Region.

Atomic Scientists of Chicago. Records

The Atomic Scientists of Chicago (ASC) was founded in September 1945 at the Metallurgical Laboratory of the University of Chicago to address the moral and social responsibilities of scientists regarding the use of nuclear energy and to promote public awareness of its possible consequences. Members included J. A. Simpson, Jr., Kenneth Cole, Farrington Daniels, James Franck, Lester Guttman, Thorfin Hogness, Robert Mulliken, Glenn Seaborg, Leo Szilard, Harold Urey, and Walter Zinn. ASC sponsored conferences, lobbied for policies and in December 1945 began publishing the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. The collection contains correspondence, subject files, financial records, manuscripts, newspaper clippings, conference material, membership records, and reports. It also includes material relating to the Chicago Committee for Civilian Control of Atomic Energy, the Association of Scientists for Atomic Education, the Federation of American Scientists, the University Office of Inquiry into the Social Aspects of Atomic Energy, and the papers of Lester Guttman.

Atomic Scientists' Printed and Near-Print Material. Records

The Atomic Scientists Printed and Near-Print Material consists of material relating to the postwar scientists' movement, including U.S. Senate and House bills and amendments as well as other print and near-print material.

Atomic Scientists. Miscellaneous Records

Correspondence, mimeographs, newsletters, minutes, and publications of national and local Atomic Scientists' organizations. Included are: Atomic Scientists of Chicago, Federation of American Scientists, Society for Social Responsibility in Science, Council for a Livable World, and the Committee for Nuclear Information. This material came from different sources and was gathered together in this collection.

Balderston, John L., Jr. Collection

Documents the Letters on World Government project, conducted by nuclear scientists John L. Balderston, Jr., Dieter M. Gruen, W.J. McLean, and David B. Wehmeyer. Includes letters from prominent intellectual, political, and entertainment figures discussing the creation of a world government to ensure peaceful control of atomic energy and a report summarizing the letters.

Bohr, Niels. Collection

Niels Bohr, Physicist. This collection contains documents pertaining to Niels Bohr, the Danish physicist who made major contributions to understandings of atomic structure, nuclear fission, and nuclear policy. The materials include offprints of published writings by and about Bohr and his work. Some of Bohr's writings are coauthored with other physicists. The writings about Bohr both predate and postdate his death. The collection also includes mimeographed copies of letters and the transcripts of lectures. There are also photographs of Bohr and his laboratory staff and several printed brochures pertaining to Bohr, his laboratory, and related events.

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Records

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, journal of nuclear energy and security news. The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Records consist of material relating to the organization's two purposes of exploring, clarifying, and formulating the opinion and responsibilities of scientists in regard to the problems brought about by the release of nuclear energy as well as educating the public to a full understanding of the scientific, technological and social problems arising from the release of nuclear energy. The collection includes newspaper clippings, press releases, periodicals, correspondence, editorial materials, manuscripts, and other related materials.

Coryell, Charles D. Papers

Charles D. Coryell, Chief of the Fission Products Section of the Manhattan Project. The Charles D. Coryell Papers consist of material the socio-political questions that consumed scientists after the unleashing of the atom, especially arms control and nuclear disposal. The materials in the papers include correspondence, periodicals, articles, and other items related to the atomic age.

Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists. Records

The Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists was formed in May, 1946, by Albert Einstein, R.F. Bacher, Hans A. Bethe, Edward U. Condon, R. Hogness, Leo Szilard, Harold C. Urey, and V.F. Weisskopf. Their objective was to encourage and further the peaceful uses of atomic energy and to do this they would solicit private contributions in support of the work of the National Committee for Atomic Information. On August 6, 1946 the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists was incorporated in New Jersey in order "that the contributions it received might be devoted to other groups interested in the field of atomic information and education as well as the NCAI." The records of the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists consist of 11.5 linear feet cover the period 1946 to 1952. The collection includes correspondence files with the several organizations, which it helped to support financially, and those organizations and individuals with whom the Committee had a common cause. It also contains the official papers, memoranda, and minutes of the meetings of the Trustees and the annual members' meetings; material relating to its fund raising and educational campaigns; minutes, reports, and papers of various scientific and interested groups' meetings; the Committee's financial records; and the general correspondence files.

Fermi, Enrico. Collection

Enrico Fermi (1901-1954), Charles H. Swift Distinguished Service Professor of Physics at the University of Chicago and 1938 Nobel Prize winner in physics, is best known to the general public for having produced the first controlled, self-sustained nuclear chain reaction. This experiment, which was carried out at the University of Chicago on December 2, 1942, made possible the development of the atomic bomb. Fermi's papers document his career as a research physicist and professor in Italy and the United States, including his work with the U. S. Department of War, the Atomic Energy Commission, the Office of Naval Research, the American Physical Society, the Institute for Nuclear Studies at the University of Chicago, and the Los Alamos, Brookhaven, and Argonne National Laboratories. The collection consists primarily of professional correspondence, publications, research and lecture notes, and patent claims. Personal materials in the collection include correspondence, identification papers, schoolbooks, engagement calendars, books from Fermi’s personal library, financial records, and a large number of awards and memorials.

Fermi, Laura. Papers

Laura Fermi, writer, wife of Nobel laureate, Enrico Fermi. The Laura Fermi Papers consist in large part of drafts and research data for her various writings. In addition, there is a small series of correspondence, most of it falling into the period following the death of her husband in 1954. The correspondence in the collection is primarily concerned with Mrs. Fermi's commitment to various civic activities such as conservation and gun control. With the exception of one letter from him, there is scant information relating to Enrico Fermi in these papers.

Fussler, Herman Howe. Papers

Herman Howe Fussler was director of the University of Chicago Library from 1948-1971 and Martin A. Ryerson Distinguished Service Professor in the Graduate Library School. He did pioneering work in microphotography and library automation and was assistant director of the Information Division of the Manhattan Project. The collection contains correspondence, records of his many professional activities, and articles and reviews spanning 1911-1984. The bulk of the collection dates from 1937-1980.

Henshaw, Paul Stewart. Papers

Paul S. Henshaw, biophysicist, atomic energy activist. The Paul S. Henshaw Papers consist of correspondence, press releases, bulletins, and pamphlet material dating from the end of the Second World War, nearly all of which is concerned with educating the public about atomic energy and the Bomb.

Hogness, Thorfin R. Papers.

Thorfin R. Hogness, (1894-1976) Physical Chemistry Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago (1930-1959); Director, Chemistry Division, Metallurgical Laboratory (1944-1945). The Thorfin R. Hogness Papers consist of material relating to the postwar scientists’ movement, including U.S. Senate and House bills and amendments as well as other print and near-print material.

Hutchins, Robert Maynard. Papers

Robert Maynard Hutchins (1899-1977) was a leader in education reform, dean of the Yale Law School, president and chancellor of the University of Chicago (1929-1951), and an executive at the Commission on Freedom of the Press, the Committee to Frame a World Constitution, Encyclopædia Britannica, the Ford Foundation, the Fund for the Republic, and the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions. The collection includes material pertaining to Hutchins' research, writing, and speaking; material relevant to his professional activities; correspondence; subject files; personal ephemera; honors and awards; annotated books; and photographs and audio recordings. Materials date between 1884 and 2000, with the bulk of the material dating between 1921 and 1977.

Hutchison, Clyde A., Jr. Papers

Clyde Allen Hutchison Jr. (1913-2005) was a chemist who pioneered research in magnetic resonance spectroscopy, served on the faculty of the University of Chicago's Department of Chemistry, and participated in the Manhattan Project. This collection documents Hutchison's work in teaching and research, as well as aspects of his career as a lecturer, visiting professor and administrator. Materials in this collection include lecture notes, drafts, notebooks, correspondence, publications and memorabilia.

Lanzl, Lawrence H. Papers

Lawrence Lanzl (1921-2001) was a distinguished researcher in the area of medical physics, who worked both on the Manhattan Project and as a cancer researcher and professor of in the Department of Radiology while at the University of Chicago. This collection consists of 40.5 linear feet of Dr. Lanzl's research, correspondence, administrative and organizational material, and personal items.

Mulliken, Robert S. Papers

The papers of Robert S. Mulliken, comprising 63 linear feet, document most aspects of his long and successful career in the field of chemical physics from the 1920s through 1985. They include correspondence, lectures and writings, research and teaching materials, and files from his affiliations at the University of Chicago and with other scientific organizations.

Plotnick, Harvey B. Collection of the History of Quantum Mechanics and the Theory of Relativity

This collection contains documents concerning the history of quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. The manuscripts consist mainly of drafts of papers and lecture notes, correspondence, class notes, and syllabi. They span the period from 1911-1995.

Rabinowitch, Eugene I., Papers

Eugene I. Rabinowitch, Research Professor of Botany at the University of Illinois and editor of the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. The papers contain material on the Pugwash Conferences, and relating to Rabinowitch’s professional and academic career, including lecture notes, research reports and correspondence. The bulk of the papers cover the years 1954-1964, with clippings and articles on science, international relations and domestic politics dating from 1945.

Schwartz, Samuel. Papers

Dr. Samuel Schwartz (1916-1997) was a renowned expert on porphyrins and heme metabolism, pioneering research into the biological effects of radiation, starting when he joined the Manhattan Project at the University of Chicago. This collection consists of 4.5 linear feet of his research materials, political activist writings, his concerns about nuclear warfare, and his personal writings. The largest part of the collection contains his research papers and drafts of journal articles with his notes and data. This includes his time during the Manhattan Project (University of Chicago), when he researched the effects of radiation on metalloporphyrins. There is a large section on Schwartz’s political activism, both for Zionism and for nuclear disarmament. Other material in the collection documents Schwartz’s personal life, his interest in birds of prey, and literary aspirations, including poetry and songs.

Simpson, John A. Papers

John A. Simpson (1916-2000) Papers include professional and personal correspondence, scientific research notes, lectures and articles, teaching materials, grant proposals, and technical reports and drawings. They document Simpson's graduate work at New York University, his activity in the Metallurgical Laboratory during World War II and his teaching and research at the University of Chicago. They also document his invention and development of radiation counters, cosmic ray neutron monitors, and numerous types of charged-particle analyzers designed for space research. Simpson utilized for his research the material and financial resources of the Air Force, Navy, NSF, and NASA, and these relationships are documented in the papers. They also document his chairmanship of the Atomic Scientists of Chicago in 1945-1946 and his work with the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. The papers represent Simpson's scientific and administrative roles in the International Geophysical Year of 1957-1958, and his later interactions with European and Soviet scientists and space agencies. These papers are supplemented by the separately described

Simpson, John A.. Papers. Addenda

John A. Simpson (1916-2000) Papers include professional and personal correspondence, scientific research notes, lectures and articles, teaching materials, grant proposals, and technical reports and drawings. The bulk of the material is from the 1960s through the 1990s. This Addenda supplements the material in the main body of the

Slotin, Louis Memorial Fund. Records

Slotin, born in Canada in 1912, earned his PhD in Chemistry in 1936. Slotin died at Los Alamos in 1946 after being exposed to radiation in a laboratory accident. Following his death, the Louis A. Slotin Memorial Fund was established to raise money to finance lectures in the sciences at the University of Chicago. The collection contains correspondence, donor lists, lists of speakers, and some biographical material about Slotin. The collection also contains two or three letters concerning the disposition of Slotin's personal library, as well as other material pertaining to his work.

Test, Francis W. Papers

Francis W. Test was a Chicago patent lawyer with a background in engineering who conducted legal work related to the Manhattan Project. This collection contains correspondence, memorabilia, and photographs related to Test's career and family life.

University of Chicago. Nuclear Pile and Plutonium 20th Anniversary Celebrations. Records

This collection consists of three bound volumes of press releases, speeches, publications, and news clippings concerning the commemoration in 1962-1963 of the 20th anniversary of the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction and related events in 1942.

Urey, Harold C. Papers

Harold C. Urey was a physical chemist who won the Nobel Prize for the discovery of deuterium, served as Director of War Research for Columbia University's Atomic Bomb Project, then joined the University of Chicago's Institute for Nuclear Studies. This collection consists of scientific notebooks developed by Urey and his students, most dating from the mid-1930s and documenting research in isotope separation, an area in which Urey was the leading authority.

Washington Association of Scientists. Records

The Washington Association of Scientists was formed in January, 1946, to impress upon the public the potentialities of atomic energy, and to urge satisfactory methods of control and development of this source of energy. Contains correspondence, constitution and by-laws, minutes, memoranda, financial records, and membership information. Material relates to the administration and activities of the Association. Also includes material relating to other organizations of scientists concerned with atomic energy control such as the Federation of American Scientists.

Wilkening, Marvin. Papers

Physicist. B.S., Southeast Missouri State University, 1939. M.S., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1943; Ph.D., 1949. Professor Emeritus of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology Contains correspondence, memoranda, notes, reprints, publications, and photographs. Material documents Wilkening's participation in the experiment that produced the first controlled nuclear chain reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942 and later scientific work at nuclear installations.